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Evaluation of Training

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Presentation on theme: "Evaluation of Training"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evaluation of Training

2 DEFINITION Training Evaluation of training
Provision aimed at creating intentional learning processes To bring about semi permanent change in individuals –Knowledge, attitudes. Skills and habits (KASH)—behaviors With an intention To enhance performance on the job Evaluation of training Systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions Is affected by Need analysis, participation, other antecedent conditions, design and delivery and transfer of training

3 Evaluation of training
Antecedent conditions Are what trainees bring to training Design and delivery Structuring and methods of delivering content Transfer of training Transfer of training is defined as the degree to which trainees apply the knowledge, skills , and attitudes gained in training to their job ( Ford and weissbein 1997; Tannebaum and Yulk 1992; Wexley and latham 1991)


5 Training and transfer

6 Participation Factors influencing participation Organizational
Alignment with organizational strategy Change, innovative work practices High performance work systems In large organizations Economies of scale, work place recognition, union involvement, specialized skills Showing greater support for training and development At job level Highly skilled jobs At individual level More motivated to learn, continuous learning More committed

7 Antecedent conditions
Are What trainees bring to training High cognitive ability High motivation to learn-desire to learn High training and performance goal orientation Work environment factors-facilitating trainee participation and learning Enablers of use of training at work place Rewards, recognition, support, resources Organizational direction and support How training is prepared Content has to be relevant, interesting, appropriate and have opportunities for practice, enable mental conceptualization of material

8 Motivation to learn Motivation to learn is defined as the specific desire of a learner to learn the content of training programme (Noe 1986; Noe and Scmitt 1986) –supported by High training goal orientation Lack anxiety High internal locus of control High achievement motivation Conscientitious High self efficacy Committed Plan their career Organizational support, peer and supervisor support

9 Training design Is based on how people learn and how organizations learn Learning cycles (Sanchez 2002) Learning principles (Kolb 1984) Recall from memory Apply principles to task Symbolic mental rehearsal Reinforcement Feed back and response Self monitoring of learning Cater to differences in aptitudes

10 Design of training Learner control Trainer skills Types of training
Enabling trainee to participate in design of programme Has a very small role, good for procedural and skill based learning Trainer skills Use of line managers, peers unskilled trainers reduces efficacy of training Use expert and skilled trainers Question of outsourcing Issues of trust, contextual familiarity, commitment Types of training Individual, team, error and e-learning

11 Delivery Contexts Separate As part of high performance work systems
Influenced by Trainees learning style Methodology of delivery Way training is delivered-Kolb’s experiential learning cycle(1984) – concrete experience, reflective observations, abstract generalization, active experimentation Specific population and content Maximum transfer of training occurs when conditions for transfer are included in training, practice scenarios, trainee is allowed to set goals, gets rewards and trainee supervisors are trained

12 Methodologies Groups of methods used in training
Information presentation Modeling- demonstration Information presentation and learner response—case method Systematic response generation—contextualizing the training Simulation On the job training

13 High performance work systems
A growing body of research suggests that the use of a set of HR practices, including comprehensive employee recruitment selection procedures, compensation and performance management systems, information sharing, and extensive employee involvement and training, can improve the acquisition, development and retention of a talented and motivated workforce. These HR practices are usually referred to as high involvement, high commitment, or high performance work systems.

14 Training design Involves five steps Specify instructional objectives
Decide sequence of activities Content based on learning principles Select training method Ensure good learning environment To maintain motivation to learn Design measures of training effectiveness

15 Transfer of training Aims of transfer Apply to improve performance
Immediate—learn and apply Long term –maintain and apply, transfer to others Is impacted by factors What occurs before training What occurs during training What occurs after training Factors classified as Individual organizational

16 Transfer of training Individual Learner characteristics
Cognitive ability Motivation to learn Anxiety Openness to experience Perceived utility Career planning Organizational commitment High motivation to transfer

17 Transfer of training Training environment Work environment
Learning goals Content relevance Practice and feed back Behavioral modeling Error based examples Work environment Transfer climate Supervisor support Peer support Opportunity to perform

18 Evaluation of training
Most commonly based on four stages model Kirkpatrick (1959,1976,1994,2006) Four stages of evaluation Reactions Learning Behavioral Results Research shows that most used is Reactions (72%), followed by learning( 32%) behavioral ( 19%) and results (7%)

19 Evaluation of training
Category Definition Methods Time lag Key issues Reactions Affective attitudinal responses Self report measures immediate Not related to trainee learning and transfer-not utility based Learning programme outcomes Paper pencil test 25-30days Necessary for performance Behavioral Actual performance on job Supervisor ratings 4-6 months Susceptible to environment variables Results Are monetary benefits Utility analysis 6-8 months Are most distant, difficult to correlate

20 Evaluation of training
Research Very few to establish causal sequence of Kirkpatrick's model New models are being developed Holton's model Proof that training helps Immediate Long term

21 Evaluation of training

22 Evaluation of training

23 Theory of planned behavior

24 Theory of planned behavior
The theory of planned behaviour states that the most important determinant of a persons behaviour is behaviour intent ( Ajzen 1991; Ajzen and Fishbien 1980; Fishbien and Ajzen 1975) and that this intent is dependent upon His attitude, the pervailing norms and perceived behaviour controls. Peoples attitudes towards their behaviour refers to the degree to which they are made favourable or unfavourable evaluations of behaviour in question. subjective norms are perceived social pressures from significant others to perform or not to perform. Perceived behavioral controls are the perceived ease or difficulty of performing a beaviour. more favourable the norms and attitudes, more favourable is te perceived beavioural controls and stronger the individual intention to perform the behaviour under consideration

25 Skills Beliefs Performance Actions THANKS ANY QUESTIONS

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