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Life in Antebellum America

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Presentation on theme: "Life in Antebellum America"— Presentation transcript:

1 Life in Antebellum America
Unit 4, Lesson 3

2 Essential Idea The North, West, and South had different cultures during the Antebellum Period.

3 Antebellum Period Time Period: Antebellum Period Meaning:
Time in American history BEFORE the Civil War (“antebellum” is Latin for “before war”) The North, West, and South were very different during the Antebellum Period

4 Life in the North Northern Farming Declines:
Climate in the North was colder Soil was rockier and less fertile Farms were small due to high population Small farms struggled to compete with large farms in the West Results: Result #1- Some farmers moved west to start bigger farms on fertile soil Result #2- Some abandoned farming and moved to cities to work in factories

5 Urbanization Urbanization: Many farmers in the North moved into cities
Many immigrants moved into cities Both groups moved to cities to work in FACTORIES Urbanization- growth of cities, which happened mainly in the North

6 Life in Northern Cities
Problems with Urbanization: 1. Overcrowding: Cities struggled to adjust to the population boom Tension grew between Americans and immigrants 2. Crime: Rise in crime led to creation of police departments 3. Fire: Crowded wooden buildings were a fire danger, so fire departments developed

7 Life in Northern Cities
4. Sanitation: No sewers and horses were used for transportation Human/animal waste and trash rotted in streets 5. Families: Less close since men left home to work in factories Poor working conditions led to alcohol abuse, hurting families

8 Northern Factories Factory Conditions:
Bosses had a negative relationship with workers Workers worked long hours for low wages Conditions were unsafe and unsanitary

9 Working Conditions Lowell Mill System:
Textile mills employed single women and children Workers lived in dorms built around the mill, creating a “company town” They were strictly controlled, worked long hours, and were paid even less than men

10 Early Unions Unions: Some workers formed unions to push for better conditions Unions had little success, seen as bad or illegal Commonwealth v. Hunt- Supreme Court ruled that unions were legal

11 Life in the West Farming:
Farming was common, where large pieces of fertile land existed Psychological impact: Isolated, lonely, fearful of conflict with Indians Connection with Cities: Farmers relied on internal improvements to trade with cities in the North

12 Life in the South The Cotton Gin and Slavery:
The cotton gin caused slavery to expand throughout the South There were 4 MILLION slaves in America when the Civil War began The Growth of Slavery

13 The “Cotton Kingdom” “Cotton Kingdom:”
The South was called the “Cotton Kingdom” because its economy was based on cotton and slavery Expansion and Sectionalism: Southerners wanted slavery to expand to the West, where more land was available This caused tension with northerners who did not want slavery to expand

14 Life in the South Lack of industrialization:
Wealthy planters held the most political and economic power Planters had little interest in industrialization since they made money from plantations Southern society remained based on cotton production

15 Society in the South White Society:
MOST whites did NOT own slaves, but did support it Wealthy planters: Smallest group, but had the most money, power, land, and slaves Yeoman Farmers: Largest group, owned few if any slaves, lived modestly, had little power Poor Whites: Owned little land and no slaves, but supported slavery due to racism? Freemen: Some blacks were free, many had saved money to buy their own freedom

16 Slavery Slave codes: Slave codes were laws that helped control slaves
Slaves could not own property, own guns, testify against whites, or become literate Purpose: Keep slaves at the bottom of society Keep slaves too ignorant to be able to rebel Slavery

17 Plantation Conditions
Slaves were viewed and treated as property Most slaves worked hard from dawn till dusk Life for Slaves

18 Plantation Conditions
Slaves were motivated to work by the threat of physical punishment Slave auctions sold slaves and often permanently separated families Plantation Slavery

19 Slave Culture Slave culture:
Slave families were strong despite oppression Songs were important and often contained hidden meanings Christianity was important to many slaves and gave them hope

20 Resistance and Rebellion
Passive resistance—slaves often sabotaged equipment and engaged in work slow downs Running away—slaves often ran away, often using the Underground Railroad

21 Resistance and Rebellion
Rebellions: Occasionally slaves rebelled with violence Slave rebellions led to tighter slave codes

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