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Sectional Differences

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Presentation on theme: "Sectional Differences"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sectional Differences
Chapter 7: Section 2

2 Objectives Analyze why industrialization took root in the northern part of the US. Describe the impact of industrialization. Analyze the reasons that agriculture and slavery became entrenched in the South.

3 North vs. South Industrialization occurred most in the Northeast
Changed the structure of society In the South, cotton production boom helped to deepen the region’s commitment to slavery The 2 parts of the country developed in different ways this would complicate politics in the US

4 North Embraces Industry
Thomas Jefferson’s Plan Maintain farmers , industrial boom Democratic Republican policies contributed to industrial development

5 Spread of Industrialization
Embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 cut off access to British manufactured goods Americans built their own factories in NE British goods threaten American factories Tariff of 1816 Tariff on imports designed to protect American goods Increased the price on imports by 20-25% Tariff helped industry but hurt farmers who had to pay higher prices for consumer goods

6 Sad farmer… paying too much for consumer goods

7 Why the Northeast? Factories emerged in the northeast because…
1. greater access to capital 2. Had more cheap labor in factories 3. Rivers water power

8 Question What factors contributed to industrialization in the early 1800s? In the Northeast, a supply of labor, power, and capital contributed to industrialization

9 Social Change in the North
Arrival of industry… Not as much skill needed for jobs Hurt highly paid artisans (blacksmiths, shoemakers, and tailors)  could not compete with low-cost laborers Artisans suffer from declining wages

10 Workers Organize Political change
1820 elections (Local and State elections) Workingmen’s Party Sought free public education and laws to limit working day to 10 hours vs. 12 hours Labor unions Unions could strike for higher wages, reduce hours, or to improve conditions Helped skilled tradesmen “Lowell mill girls” 1834, 1836 Neither union movement or Workingmen’s Party prospered during 1800s

11 Wealthy business owners
Middle Class Emerges Wealthy business owners Middle class Common laborers

12 Emigration from Ireland and Germany

13 Emigration 1840s, working class comprised of immigrants
Surge of immigrants came from Ireland and Germany Political upheavals, economic depression, rural famines Boosted share of nation’s population Promoted urban growth 40% of NYC population Went wherever there were factory jobs Rapid influx of people caused social and political strains Poverty and Job competition Nativists Campaigned for laws to discourage immigration or to deny political rights to newcomers

14 Irish Immigration

15 Irish Famine

16 Irish Famine

17 Question How did industrialization change the experience of working people? Industrialization create new job opportunities, but it also reduced the wages previously earned by artisans. It also created a more rigid division of social classes.

18 Southern Agricultural Economy and Society
1780s, hope that slavery would become unpopular Switch from tobacco to wheat cultivation Deep South cotton leading crop Slavery heightens

19 Cotton Production Surges
Boost of cotton industry 3 factors: cotton gin, western expansion, industrialization 1793, invention of cotton gin Separated cotton seed from white fiber Supplied Northern factories with cotton Cotton and cotton textiles accounted for over half the value of all American exports

20 Cotton Boom Spreads Slavery
Slavery flourished and became more deeply entrenched in the South Needed more workers and more land Cotton was very profitable slaves became more valuable to owners Overseas trade banned in 1808 Illegal trade and interstate trade

21 Interstate Slave Trade

22 Economic Consequences
Limitation of regional development with cotton production Issue of relying on one crop No urban growth North grew faster than the South gave North political power South had limited consumer demand More profitable to buy a plantation

23 Cultural Consequences
A dispersed population and slavery affected the South Planters opposed education for slaves/poor whites Poor whites also got very little/no education Illiteracy 15%

24 Defending the Slave System in the South
Common farmers wanted to acquire their own slaves and plantations Dread of freeing slaves revenge on owners All whites felt racially superiority Felt they had more rights than those in the North Felt more independent 1850s, proslavery The institution of slavery Said slavery was kinder to African Americans than industrial life was to white workers


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