Uganda facts Land locked Population 29 million, 80% rural Population growth rate: 3% GDP growth 6% Agrarian economy Peasant farming Raw material exports
Energy picture in Uganda 91% biomass based energy Deforestation Hydro power generation High potential >2GW Installed capacity 280 MW Current <150MW Thermal 150MW Hydro and thermal electricity covers 9% Transport Sector 100% petroleum fuel High import bill Energy insecurity
The National Energy Policy Accelerated power generation from renewable resources Development/adoption and utilization of other modern fuels and technologies (bioenergy) Aims: Socio-economic development especially transforming rural areas Address poverty issues, catalyse industrialization and protect the environment.
Policy and Actions on Biofuels Biofuels: oils and fats, biodiesel and ethanol Blend all fossil diesel with up to 20% biodiesel Govt promoting production of oil crops For edible oil For biodiesel Biodiesel targeted for transport and for rural electrification
Jatropha Production in Uganda Grown to support the vanilla crop on small holder farms Variety not known, seed yield and potetial Seeds considered useless Farmers started selling the seeds
Developments in Jatropha Production and Use Makerere University Extraction of jatropha oil Conversion into biodiesel Bas Lankveld flower farm Buys seeds Uses Jatropha oil as fuel for farm machinery MEMD/GTZ Piloting jatropha oil fueled electric generator Policy development and implementation
Developments in Jatropha Production and Use cont. Feasibility studies MEMD Private initiatives
Barriers to bioenergy development and use Prospects for petroleum deposits exploitation Inadequate Legal and Institutional Framework Limited Technical and Institutional Capacity Lack of Financing Mechanisms Underdeveloped market Lack of Research and Development Support
Expected benefits of deploying biodiesel Improved national energy security by using indigenous renewable energy sources instead of imported fossil fuel Create employment and income in rural areas Promotion of a new source of income to farmers Support rural electrification strategy Promotion of technology transfer and skills development
Conclusions Biofuels are not an absolute substitute to fossil fuels but if produced under adequate policy regimes they offer one of the stepping stones towards a development among poor countries. Since the collapse of the commodity markets in the 70s, biofuels offer the first expanded market opportunity and rise in commodity prices for poor producer countries. Least developed countries should take advantage of this window of opportunity to develop their agriculture and industry. There is need to support the biofuels initiatives in the developing countries in order to realize economic gains.