Use pie charts to show a whole and the proportion of its components. Generally begin at the 12 o’clock position, drawing the largest wedge first. Computer software programs, however, may vary in placement of wedges. Include the label and percentage or absolute value for each wedge. Avoid legends. Pie Chart
Use four to eight segments for best results; if necessary, group small portions into one wedge called “Other.” Distinguish wedges with color, shading, or crosshatching. Keep all labels horizontal. Pie Chart
Vertical Bar Chart 40 30 20 10 0 Scale value Scale captions Source note Millions of Dollars Source: Industry Profiles (New York: DataPro, 2002), 225. Theme Parks Motion Pictures Videos $22.0 $32.2 $24.3 Figure 2 Figure number 2001 MPM INCOME BY DIVISION Figure title
Bar Charts Bar charts make visual comparisons. They can compare related items, illustrate changes in data over time, and show segments as parts of wholes. Bar charts may be vertical, horizontal, grouped, or segmented. Avoid showing too much information, clutter, and confusion Avoid 3-D graphics (hard to read)
Bar Charts The length of each bar and segment should be proportional. Dollar or percentage amounts should start at zero. Set background to clear. Include figure#, chart, and axis titles Avoid legends where possible to include labels on the graph Use simple color or pattern differentiations that can be copied in black & white and still understood.
Stacked Bar with Group Comparisons Figure 2 Cognitive Moral Development Stage By Group