# © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Chapter 8: Reading Graphics and Technical Writing College Reading and Study Skills, Ninth.

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© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Chapter 8: Reading Graphics and Technical Writing College Reading and Study Skills, Ninth Edition by Kathleen T. McWhorter

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Objective: In this chapter you will learn to use visual aids as a learning tool. LEARNING PRINCIPLE: Visualization enables you to grasp ideas, see relationships, and recall information easily.

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers How to Read Graphics 1. Read the title or caption. 2. Determine how the graphic is organized. 3. Identify the variables. 4. Anticipate the purpose. 5. Determine scale, values, or units of measurement.

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers How to Read Graphics 6. Study the data to identify trends or patterns. 7. Draw connections with the chapter content. 8. Make a brief summary note in the margin about the graphic and what it shows.

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Types of Graphics TABLES are organized displays of factual information, usually numbers or statistics. They try to make comparisons between or among data. GRAPHS plot a set of points on a set of axes to show relationships. CHARTS display a relationship, either quantitative or cause-effect.

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Types of Graphics DIAGRAMS explain processes, showing relationships between parts and helping you understand what follows what. MAPS describe relationships and provide information about location and direction. CARTOONS usually add humor to a text. PHOTOGRAPHS spark your interest and try to draw an emotional response.

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers How to Read Tables 1. Determine how the data are classified or divided. 2. Make comparisons and look for trends or patterns. 3. Draw conclusions. See Figure 8.2 in your textbook for a sample table.

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Types of Graphs BAR GRAPHS: make comparisons between quantities or amounts to emphasize differences, particularly over time. – Multiple Bar Graphs display at least two or three comparisons simultaneously (Figure 8.5). – Stacked Bar Graphs place bars one on top of another to show whole/part relationships (Figure 8.6).

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Types of Graphs LINEAR GRAPHS: points are plotted along a vertical and a horizontal axis and then connected to form a line (Figure 8.7). – Present more detailed and/or larger quantities of information. – Display positive, negative, or independent relationships (Figure 8.8).

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Types of Graphics: Charts CHARTS: intended to display a relationship, either quantitative or cause- effect. – Pie Charts (circle graphs) show whole/part relationships or show how parts of a unit have been divided or classified (Figure 8.12). – Flowcharts show how a process or procedure works and use lines or arrows (Figure 8.14).

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Types of Graphics: Charts CHARTS: intended to display a relationship, either quantitative or cause- effect. – Organizational charts divide an organization into administrative parts or lines of authority (Figure 8.13). – Pictograms use symbols or drawings instead of bars or lines to represent specified amounts (Figure 8.15).

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Types of Graphics: Diagrams Diagrams: often explain processes, showing relationships between parts, and helping you understand what follows what (Figure 8.18). – Often include large segments of text, so it is best to switch back and forth from text to diagram when reading them. – Read them more than once. – Try redrawing them without looking at the original.

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Types of Graphics: Maps Maps: describe relationships and provide information about location and direction. – Read the caption to identify the subject. – Use the legend or key. – Note distance scales. – Study the map for trends or key points. – Create a mental picture of the map. – Write a statement about what the map shows. See Figure 8.20 in the text.

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Types of Graphics: Cartoons Cartoons: make a point quickly or lighten the text with humor. There is usually no legend with a cartoon (Figure 8.21).

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Types of Graphics: Photographs Photographs: used to spark your interest and often, to draw out an emotional response or feeling (Figure 8.22). Click on the photograph!

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Tips for Studying Technical Material Reserve Large Blocks of Time Learn Technical Vocabulary Study by Drawing Diagrams and Pictures Focus on Concepts and Principles Integrate Lab, Lecture, and Classroom Activities

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Tips for Studying Technical Material Use the Glossary and Index Highlight Selectively (See Chapter 13) Use Outlining (See Chapter 14) Learn Processes and Procedures – Prepare study sheets. – Write out steps of a process. – Use index cards to record steps.

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Summary Questions What steps can be taken to read graphic material more effectively? How is technical writing different from other types of writing? How should technical material be read? How can technical material be studied more effectively?

© 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers Take a Reading Road Trip! Take a trip to WALL STREET in New York City and visit the Graphics and Visual Aids module on your CD- ROM.