2 Overview of Cellular Respiration the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygenThis is an aerobic process, meaning that it requires oxygenReferred to as a metabolic pathwayMetabolism: a cell’s chemical processIt occurs in the Mitochondria
3 Overall Chemical Equation 6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + energyOrOxygen + glucose carbon dioxide + water + energy
4 Structure of Mitochondria They are found in almost all eukaryotic cells.It consists of two membranes, with a space between the inner and outer membranes.The highly folded inner membrane encloses a thick fluid called the matrix.Many enzymes and proteins are built into the membrane to allow for ATP production.The complex folding pattern allows for many sites where cellular respiration can occur.
5 There are three process that make up cellular respiration in the presence of Oxygen. GlycolysisKrebs CycleElectron Transport ChainIf it occurred all at once all the energy would be released at once, and most would be lost as heat and light. So it put into steps to release the energy in smaller amounts.
7 Glycolysis – “splitting of sugar” The process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3- carbon compound.First step of Cellular RespirationReleases only a small amount of energy.The presence of oxygen determines which pathway is taken to release the energyOccurs in the cytoplasm
8 1. The Process of Glycolysis GlucoseRemember this is theenergy of the cell!2 ATP2 ADPElectron Carrier2 Pyruvic Acids2 NAD+4 ADPUses Oxygen2 NADH4 ATP2 Pyruvic AcidsAerobic RespirationDoesn’t use OxygenAnaerobic Respiration
9 Summary of GlycolysisThe original glucose molecule has been converted to two molecules of pyruvic acid.Two ATP’s have been spentAnd Four ATP’s have been produced and two NADPH
10 2.The Krebs Cycle Also known as the citric acid cycle Occurs in the mitochondrial matrixPyruvic acid produced from glycolysis is used to make a two carbon compound known as acetyl coenzyme A or acetyl CoA.Acetyl CoA enters the cycle to produvceCarbon dioxideNADHATPFADH2
11 Summary of the Krebs Cycle 2 ATP are producedNADH and FADH2 carry electrons to the electron transport chain to make more energyCO2 is released from the cell
12 3. Electron Transport Chain with ATP Synthase Action The ETC used high energy electrons from the Kreb’s cycle to convert ADP to ATP.Occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria and is composed of a series of carrier proteins.Water is produced and released at the end of the ETC.34 ATP are produced in the end
15 Cellular Respiration without Oxygen Fermentation is the process of releasing energy from food by producing ATP without Oxygen (anaerobic).Occurs after GlycolysisTwo typesAlcoholic fermentationLactic acid fermentation
16 Alcoholic Fermentation Yeast and few other microorganismsProduces ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas as wastes.Alcoholic Fermentation
17 Lactic Acid Fermentation Occurs in humans and other eukaryotesMuscle cramps are caused by a build up of lactic acidWhen you exercise vigorously, the large muscles run out of oxygen quickly.Your muscles quickly produce ATP using lactic acid fermentation.Lactic acid builds up which causes your muscles to ache.