2 Energy cycle ATP Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration sun CO2 O2 H2O even though this equation is a bit of a lie… it makes abetter storysunEnergy cyclePhotosynthesisCO2H2OC6H12O6O2lightenergy+H2OplantsCO2glucoseO2animals, plantsCO2H2OC6H12O6O2ATPenergy+Cellular RespirationATPThe Great Circle of Life,Mufasa!
3 ATP ATP is biological energy ATP + water ADP + P = energy When you break the bond you get energyATP = stored energyADP = used energy
4 Cellular RespirationProcess that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.6CO26H2OC6H12O66O2ATPenergy+38 ATPproducedGlucose
5 If no oxygen is present then fermentation occurs Cytoplasm Oxygen required2 ATP neededIf no oxygen is present then fermentation occursCytoplasmCO2 released4 ATP produced2 ATP produced34 ATP produced
6 Glycolysis (occurs in cytoplasm) Break down glucose into 2 pyruvate moleculesGlucose has 6 carbonPyruvate has 3 carbonNo oxygen in required (anaerobic)Needs 2ATP to happenGenerates 4ATPNet gain of 2ATP at the end of the process
7 After GlycolysisIf oxygen is present, pyruvate moves to mitochondria where cellular respiration occurs.If not oxygen is present, pyruvate is used for alcoholic or lactic acid fermentation.
8 Cellular respiration occurs in two steps Kreb’s cycle or citric acid cycleProduced 2ATPElectron transport chainProduced 34 ATPBoth processes require oxygen and occur in the mitochondria
9 Kreb’s cycle Pyruvic acid produced from glycolysis is used to make Carbon dioxideNADHATPFADH24 ATP are produced for immediate use for cell processesNADH and FADH2 carry electrons to the electron transport chain to make more energyCO2 is released from the cell
10 Electron transport chain The ETC used high energy electrons from the Kreb’s cycle to convert ADP to ATP.ETC is composed of a series of carrier proteins in the inner membrane of the mitochondria.Water is produced and released at the end of the ETC.34 ATP are produced in the end
12 Fermentation Two types Alcoholic fermentation Lactic acid fermentation Both processes do not require oxygen (anaerobic) and occur after glycolysis.
13 Alcoholic fermentation Yeasts and a few other microorganisms use this processCO2 bubbles that are released from this process cause bread to rise.Also used to make beer and wine
14 Lactic acid fermentation Occurs in humans and other eukaryotesMuscle cramps are caused by a build up of lactic acidWhen you exercise vigorously, the large muscles run out of oxygen quickly.Your muscles quickly produce ATP using lactic acid fermentation.Lactic acid builds up which causes your muscles to ache.