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Biology 12 - respiration.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology 12 - respiration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology 12 - respiration

2 Cellular respiration Provides energy for the cell Occurs in all cells
Net equation: glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + energy (ATP) Occurs as a series of reactions, involving many different enzymes Involves anaerobic and aerobic reactions

3 ATP and ADP Act as chemical batteries
Carry and release small amounts of energy ATP adenosine adenosine phosphate ADP energy

4 Anaerobic respiration
Occurs in the cytoplasm Does not need oxygen Involves 2 processes – glycolysis and fermentation

5 Glycolysis Glucose is broken down into 2 pyruvate (pyruvic acid) molecules Reactions use 2 ATP Reactions make 4 ATP Net ATP = 2/glucose molecule

6 Fermentation In animals: Pyruvate is converted to lactic acid
In plants and fungi: Pyruvate is converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide

7 Aerobic respiration Occurs in the mitochondrion Needs oxygen
Involves Transition reaction, Krebs cycle and Electron transport chain Involves many reactions and enzymes Produces 36 ATP Waste products are carbon dioxide and water

8 Structure of mitochondrion

9 Transition reaction Pyruvate attaches to Coenzyme A to form Acetyl Coenzyme A Acetyl Coenzyme A enters mitochondrion and releases the pyruvate into the Krebs cycle Coenzyme A can also pick up fatty acids and take them into the Krebs cycle

10 Transition reaction

11 Krebs cycle Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion
A cycle of reactions generates ATP and hydrogen ions (carried by NAD and FAD carriers to electron transport chain) Waste product is carbon dioxide Produces 2 ATP/glucose molecule

12 Krebs cycle

13 Carrier proteins Carry hydrogen ions to electron transport chains
NAD  NADH + H+ FAD  FADH2 + H+

14 Electron transport chain
Found in the cristae (inner membranes) of the mitochondrion ATP is generated as hydrogen ions are passed down the chain Oxygen is used up Waste product is water Produces 34 ATP/glucose molecule

15 Electron transport chain

16 Summary of reactions

17 Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Site it occurs cytoplasm mitochondrion Need for oxygen no yes Waste products Animals – lactic acid Plants – carbon dioxide and alcohol Carbon dioxide and water Amount of ATP 2/glucose molecule 36 – 38/glucose molecule Reactions involved Glycolysis Fermentation Transition reaction Krebs cycle Electron transport chain

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