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Essential Questions What are the stages of cellular respiration?What is the role of electron carriers in each stage of cellular respiration? What are the similarities between alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation? Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Overview of Cellular RespirationOrganisms obtain energy in a process called cellular respiration. Respiration harvests electrons from organic molecules and uses the energy to make ATP. The equation for cellular respiration is the opposite of the equation for photosynthesis: Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Overview of Cellular RespirationCellular respiration occurs in two main parts: glycolysis and aerobic respiration. Glycolysis is an anaerobic process, meaning it does not require oxygen. Aerobic respiration involves the Krebs cycle and electron transport. Aerobic processes require oxygen. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Glycolysis Glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm through the process of glycolysis. Two molecules of ATP and two molecules of NADH are formed for each molecule of glucose that is broken down. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Krebs Cycle Glycolysis has a net result of two ATP and two pyruvate.Most of the energy from the glucose is still contained in the pyruvate. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate is transported into the mitochondrial matrix, where it is converted into carbon dioxide. The series of reactions in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide is the Krebs cycle, also know as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Krebs Cycle Steps of the Krebs cyclePrior to the Krebs cycle, pyruvate reacts with coenzyme A (CoA) to form acetyl CoA. Acetyl CoA moves into the mitochondrial matrix. Acetyl CoA combines with a 4-carbon compound to form citric acid. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Krebs Cycle Steps of the Krebs cycleCitric acid is broken down releasing two molecules of carbon dioxide and generating one ATP, three NADH, and one FADH2. Finally, acetyl CoA and citric acid are generated and the cycle continues. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Electron Transport In aerobic respiration, electron transport is the final step in the breakdown of glucose. NADH and FADH2 from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP to ATP. Electron transport and chemiosmosis in aerobic respiration are similar to the processes of photosynthesis. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Electron Transport Prokaryotic cellular respirationSome prokaryotes undergo aerobic respiration. They do not have mitochondria, so they use the cellular membrane as the location of electron transport. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Anaerobic RespirationWhen oxygen is unavailable, cells cannot follow glycolysis with the aerobic respiration (Krebs cycle and electron transport). The anaerobic process that follows glycolysis is anaerobic respiration, or fermentation. Fermentation occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell, and produces NAD+ and ATP. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Anaerobic RespirationLactic acid fermentation Enzymes convert the pyruvate made during glycolysis into lactic acid. Skeletal muscles produce lactic acid when the body cannot supply enough oxygen, such as during periods of strenuous exercise. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Anaerobic RespirationAlcohol fermentation Occurs in yeast and some bacteria Converts pyruvate into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis and Cellular RespirationCopyright © McGraw-Hill Education Cellular Respiration
Review Essential Questions VocabularyWhat are the stages of cellular respiration? What is the role of electron carriers in each stage of cellular respiration? What are the similarities between alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation? Vocabulary anaerobic process aerobic respiration aerobic process glycolysis Krebs cycle fermentation Cellular Respiration Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education
Cellular Respiration BIOLOGY.
(Harvesting Chemical Energy) Glycolysis Fermentation Aerobic respiration.
Ch 9- Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration Respiration is the process of breaking down food molecules to release energy. Respiration is the process of breaking down food molecules.
Chapter 9 Notes Cellular Respiration.
Cellular Respiration Chapter 8.3.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION CHAPTER 9 SC B-3.2 Summarize the basic aerobic & anaerobic processes of cellular respiration & interpret the equation.
Key Words anaerobic process: does not require O2 to occur
Ch 9- Cellular Respiration How do we get the energy we need? – Food – What in food gives us the energy we need? Cellular Respiration- process that releases.
Cellular Respiration & Fermentation
Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration…What is it? -process by which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compunds. Why is it important? -cells.
Cellular Respiration. A quick review… A quick review… When we eat, we get ______ from glucose and other sugars When we eat, we get ______ from glucose.
Overview of Cellular Respiration Section 4.4 Cellular respiration makes ATP by breaking down sugars. If a step requires oxygen, it is called aerobic.
Respiration. Breaking Down the Definitions 1.Cellular Respiration 2.Glycolysis 3.Pyruvic Acid 4.NADH 5.Anaerobic 6.Aerobic Respiration 7.Fermentation.
Warm Up Answer the following questions in your notebook. Be sure to include the question as well. How many ATP are produced in total through cellular.
CHAPTER 8 Cellular Energy
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