Presentation on theme: "Effects of Low-Fat Dairy Consumption on Markers of Low- Grade Systemic Inflammation and Endothelial Function in Overweight and Obese Subjects: An Intervention."— Presentation transcript:
Effects of Low-Fat Dairy Consumption on Markers of Low- Grade Systemic Inflammation and Endothelial Function in Overweight and Obese Subjects: An Intervention Study By: Christine Richardson Leonie et al., British Journal of Nutrition (2010), 104, 1523-1527
Definitions Metabolic Syndrome-characteristics that, when combined, increase risk of heart disease; must have 3+ of the following: ◦ Large waist circumference (>102 cm for men, >88cm for women ◦ High triglycerides (>150mg/dL) ◦ Low HDL (<40mg/dL for men, <50mg/dL for women) ◦ High BP (>130/85mmHg) ◦ High fasting blood glucose (>100mg/dL) Adhesion molecules-proteins that are involved in various cell activities such as mitigation, proliferation, and apoptosis ◦ In cardiovascular disorders, they are involved with atherogenesis, atherosclerotic plaque progression, and myocardial infarction Atherogenesis-the formation of abnormal fat deposits in the artery Atherosclerosis-thickening of artery walls due to progression of atherogenesis
Background/Introduction Metabolic syndrome increases cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes Epidemiological studies have shown that increased consumption of dairy decreases metabolic syndrome Although inflammation isn’t used as one of the criteria in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, it is thought to be a component of metabolic syndrome that can increase risk of CVD
Objective/Aim The purpose of this study was to examine how low-fat dairy can effect inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules Hypothesis was that low-fat dairy would help decrease inflammation
Subjects 35 subjects (10 male and 25 female) Inclusion characteristics: ◦ 18-70 years old ◦ BMI >27kg/m2 or waist circumference of >102cm for men and >88cm for women Exclusion characteristics: ◦ CVD ◦ Familial hypercholesterolaemia ◦ Pregnant/breast-feeding ◦ Alcohol or drug abuse ◦ Stable body weight in last 3 months ◦ Dairy consumption <500g/d Subjects were asked to maintain level of physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking habits, o oral contraceptive use during study
Methods Crossover intervention study Subjects were split in half and would consume either low-fat dairy products for 8 weeks or a carbohydrate control for 8 weeks then switch ◦ 2 week washout period ◦ Dairy products were: 500mL low-fat milk and 150g low-fat yogurt per day ◦ Control diet was 600mL fruit juice and 43g fruit biscuits per day
Methods con’t FFQs were used to estimate energy and nutrient composition
Methods con’t Blood samples were taken at baseline and after 4, 7, and 8 weeks in each group Samples were tested for TNF- , s-TNFR- 1, s-TNFR-2, IL6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
Results Mean body weight did not change No differences in plasma IL-6 between groups TNF- α were lower in dairy group s-TNFR-1 were higher in dairy group
Results con’t s-TNFR-2 were higher after dairy consumption No difference in MCP-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
Discussion Although some differences were found, most of the changes were not significant enough to make any type of conclusion Only significant findings were s-TNFR-2 and TNF- α ◦ s-TNFR-2 affect TNF- α inversely Therefore, higher levels of s-TNFR-2 will decrease TNF- α Higher levels of TNF- α have been shown to be correlated to obesity, insulin, and therefore, metabolic syndrome
Conclusion Low-fat dairy consumption may change TNF- α concentrations, which may help decrease certain risks of metabolic syndrome.
Comments Have equal distribution among sexes Did not address if dairy given by researchers was only dairy eaten Increase dairy consumed Use a wider variety of low-fat dairy Maybe it was the increase in protein and/or decrease in carbohydrates that caused the results?