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+ Were Hunters and Gatherers Really Healthier Than Us? An Evidence Based Look at the Paleolithic Diet By: Kelsey Starck.

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Presentation on theme: "+ Were Hunters and Gatherers Really Healthier Than Us? An Evidence Based Look at the Paleolithic Diet By: Kelsey Starck."— Presentation transcript:

1 + Were Hunters and Gatherers Really Healthier Than Us? An Evidence Based Look at the Paleolithic Diet By: Kelsey Starck

2 + Learning Objectives In this PowerPoint, you should learn; The fundamental basis of the Paleolithic Diet. What you should eat, what is restricted, etc. Present research that supports the idea that the Paleolithic Diet can reduce both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Diets containing a higher amount of monounsaturated fat, compared to saturated fat, show an improvement in insulin sensitivity. In comparison to diabetes diets, per dietary guidelines, the Paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie.

3 + The Paleolithic Diet Fundamentals High daily protein (19-35%): including grass-fed beef, seafood and chicken Low Carbohydrates (35 -45%): Fresh fruits and vegetables main carbohydrate source. Low glycemic indexes recommended. High Fiber: Fresh fruits and vegetables should be main source Monounsaturated Fats: Including nuts, olive oils, avocados and seeds (1). Dairy: Potential to be highly processed and may contain many hormones Whole Grains: have less fiber, and no vitamin C, vitamin A or vitamin B12 when compared to fruits and vegetables Legumes: beans, peanuts, soy, lentils can increase intestinal permeability which is the precursor to many autoimmune disorders (1). Processed foods: such as fast foods, potato chips, canned cheese, boxed macaroni and cheese contain high amounts of sodium, refined sugars and trans-fats Potatoes Allowable FoodsRestricted Foods

4 + Paleolithic Diet and Blood Pressure SO…Why is this important? CategorySystolic (mmHg)Diastolic (mmHg) Normal BPLess than 120Less than 80 Pre-Hypertension120-13980-89 Hypertension 1140-15990-99 Hypertension2160 or higher100 or higher A reduction in blood pressure or hypertension, will reduce the force against the arterial walls of the heart. Blood pressure is one of the cluster of disease related to metabolic syndrome. In reducing blood pressure, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is reduced, therefore reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Lower carbohydrate Diets, such as the Paleo Diet, have been proven (2) to reduce both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

5 + Monounsaturated Fats vs. Saturated Fats What is Insulin Resistance? The bodies diminished ability to respond to the insulin in the bloodstream. Overtime, glucose will build up in the blood, hyperglycemia, instead of being absorbed by the cells and increase the risk for type 2 diabetes What is Insulin Sensitivity? The bodies ability to utilize smaller amounts of insulin to lower blood glucose. Higher insulin sensitivity is a more efficient system, and is not insulin resistant. According to a recent study, fat intake is correlated with plasma insulin values and insulin sensitivity. The study consisted of two diets, one high in monounsaturated fat and one high in saturated fat for three months. The monounsaturated fat diet improved insulin sensitivity compared to the diet high in saturated fat. In other words, the diet high in monounsaturated fat reverses the effects of insulin resistance, and therefore, reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. (3). The Paleolithic Diet is high in monounsaturated fats including, nuts, avocados and olive oils. These foods all contribute towards greater insulin sensitivity. Therefore, consuming the Paleo Diet will reduce insulin resistance, glucose will be absorbed via the cells effectively and be preventative to type 2 diabetes and ultimately metabolic syndrome.

6 + Why not just utilize the “diabetes diet” to reduce the prevalence of metabolic syndrome? The diabetes diet as recommended by the American Diabetes Association (4) is full of heart healthy foods including whole grains, low fat dairy, fruits, vegetables and lean meats. According to a recent study, in which the participants either adhered to the Paleo Diet or Diabetes Diet and recorded comment on satiety. It was found that the Paleo Diet is more satiating per calorie than the diabetes diet in patients with Type 2 Diabetes. (5). When deciding whether to adhere to the Paleolithic Diet or Diabetes Diet, the Paleo Diet will be a better choice because; The Paleo Diet is more satiating, you feel full longer, likely due to the high amount of protein. This means that less overall calories will be consumed resulting in weight loss. When weight loss is achieved, waist circumference will decrease, and the risk of metabolic syndrome is decreased. Waist circumference is a predictor for risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. As waist circumference increases, the risk for chronic disease increases. For men a high risk circumference is greater than 40 inches and greater than 35 inches for women.

7 + Why is this all important…? Metabolic Syndrome is defined as a cluster of chronic diseases that all increase the risk for heart disease, diabetes and stroke. The risk factors include, large waist circumference, high triglyceride level, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia. Somebody that has metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop heart disease and five times as likely to develop diabetes compared to somebody who doesn’t have metabolic syndrome (6). The Paleolithic Diet plays a large role in decreasing the risk for metabolic syndrome, and therefore, reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The Paleo Diet is proven to reduce hypertension, insulin resistance and waist circumference. Hunter’s and Gatherers from the Paleolithic period have proven to be healthier to modern Americans, because following the Paleo Diet the incidence of metabolic syndrome is significantly lower due to the decreased risk of hypertension, insulin resistance and waist circumference.

8 + Potential Exam Questions 1. Are dairy products such as cheese, milk and yogurt recommended in the Paleolithic Diet? Why? 2. Why are monounsaturated fats important in the Paleolithic Diet? 1. Dairy products are not recommended in the Paleolithic diet because they are highly processed and may contain hormones. 2. Monounsaturated fats work to reduce insulin resistance, and therefore, reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

9 + References 1. The Paleo Diet. The Paleo Diet Premise. paleo-diet-premise/ March 28 th, 2014. paleo-diet-premise/ 2. NCBI. Moderate replacement of carbohydrates by dietary fats affects features of metabolic syndrome: a randomized crossover clinical trial. March 27 th, 2014. 3. NCBI. Dietary treatment of the metabolic syndrome--the optimal diet. March 27 th, 2014. 4. American Diabetes Association. What Can I Eat? fitness/food/what-can-i-eat/ March 28 th, 2014. 5. NCBI. Subjective satiety and other experiences of a Paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. 28 th, 2014. 6. National Heart, Lunch, and Blood Institute. What is Metabolic Syndrome? March 28 th, 2014.

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