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Political Institutions & Parties

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Presentation on theme: "Political Institutions & Parties"— Presentation transcript:

1 Political Institutions & Parties
Politics of India Political Institutions & Parties

2 Republic of India A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government capital: New Delhi

3 A federal system 26 states and 6 centrally administered Union Territories 2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China

4 Federal system Relatively centralized
federal government controls the most essential government functions defense foreign policy taxation public expenditures economic (industrial) planning

5 Federal system state governments formally control agriculture
education law and order within states dependent on central government for funds

6 Federal system Balance of power between central and state governments
varies by time and place state power was constrained during the rule of Nehru and Indira Gandhi state governments have more room to maneuver when central government is weak since 1998

7 Federal system considerable center-state conflict when ruling political party in a state is different from national ruling party

8 Parallel state structure
Formal political structure of the states parallels that of the national government national state President Governor Prime Minister Chief Minister Parliament Assembly Supreme Court High Court

9 The legislature Parliamentary system of government
the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament

10 The legislature bicameral Parliament Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
Lok Sabha (House of the People)

11 Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
The Upper House

12 Upper House Rajya Sabha (Council of States) not more than 250 members
12 are nominated by the President of India the rest are indirectly elected by state Legislative Assemblies The Council of States can not be dissolved members have terms of 6 years 1/3 members retire at end of every 2nd year

13 Lok Sabha House of the People

14 Lower House Lok Sabha (House of the People) 545 members
2 are appointed by the President of India the rest are directly elected from single-member districts 5-year terms unless dissolved Lok Sabha elects its presiding officer the Speaker

15 Lok Sabha Elections held at least every 5 years
Prime Minister may call elections earlier 543 single-member districts of roughly equal population party nomination 1st-past-the-post winner-take-all women’s share

16 Elections to Lok Sabha Vote share of 3 major political parties

17 Current composition 43 parties in the 13th Lok Sabha (1999)
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Indian National Congress (INC) Communist Party of India (M) 34 43 other political parties total

18 Indian National Congress
India’s oldest political party since 1885 India’s premier political party until 1990s in 1960s many regional parties started challenging INC’s monopoly on power

19 Indian National Congress
Indira Gandhi created a top-down structure party leaders appoint party officials some limited party elections left-of-center, pro-poor political platform

20 Indian National Congress
INC moved toward the ideological center Beginning in 1984 INC today tilts right-of-center economic efficiency business interests limited government spending

21 Indian National Congress
INC has always attracted support from diverse social groups in the 1990s INC has lost some of its traditional constituencies among the poor and Muslims

22 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
The major political party in India today right-leaning, Hindu-nationalist party first major party to mobilize explicitly on the basis of religious identity

23 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
better organized than INC disciplined party members carefully selected party cadres clear and respected authority line within the party

24 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
Traditional supporters urban, lower-middle-class groups base of support widened since mid-1980s Hindu nationalism north-central India decline of Indian National Congress Muslims as convenient scapegoat for frustration

25 BJP’s rapid rise to power
electoral success from 1989 to 1999 difficulty in forming alliance with other parties break with past traditions relatively moderate, centrist position BJP formed governing coalition in 1998 collapsed in 1999 BJP formed a new coalition in 1999 more broadly based than previous coalition

26 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
economic liberalization and stability privilege the interests of the Hindu majority

27 Prime Minister Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister prime minister nominates a cabinet members of Parliament in the ruling coalition Council of Ministers effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister where most of the important policies originate

28 Prime Ministers of India
38 years in the Nehru-Gandhi family more and more rapid turnover

29 The President of India Head of the State
Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces elected by an electoral college national Parliament state legislature 5-year terms can be reelected


31 The President of India Ceremonial office
symbolize national unity supposedly above partisan politics mostly acts on the advice of the prime minister President plays a significant role when the selection of a prime minister is complex in 1998 President requested BJP to form govt.

32 The Judiciary Fundamental contradiction in constitution
principle of parliamentary sovereignty principle of judicial review

33 The Judiciary judiciary tries to preserve the constitution’s basic structure to ensure that legislation conforms with the intent of the constitution parliament tries to assert its right to amend the constitution

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