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Politics of India. India Republic of India A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government capital: New Delhi.

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Presentation on theme: "Politics of India. India Republic of India A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government capital: New Delhi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Politics of India

2 India

3 Republic of India A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government capital: New Delhi

4 2nd most populous nation Population: over one billion Growing at 1.5% a year

5 Population in 2005

6 A nation of diversity: languages Constitution lists 14 official “principal languages” English Hindi (30%)

7 A nation of diversity: religions Religions: –Hindu (~81%) –Muslim (~12%) –others (e.g. Buddhist 0.7%) all major religions in the world are present one of the major causes of conflict religion can become a political vehicle for social movement

8 Brief history One of the world’s oldest civilizations –5,000 years foreign incursions –Aryans, Arabs, Turks, Portugal, France, and Britain –from 1,500 B.C. to 19th Century A.D.

9 190 years of British colonial rule Informal colonial rule through the British East India Company (1750s-1850s) formal colonial rule after the Mutiny rebellion of 1857

10 Struggle for independence Indian National Congress was formed in 1885 non-violent resistance to colonial rule Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) –transformed INC –unity within diversity –non-cooperation movement Nehru (1889-1964)

11 Independence & partition Division of the subcontinent (1947) –India –Pakistan

12 Republic of India Prime Minister Nehru (1947-1964) His daughter (Indira Gandhi) as Prime Minister (1966-1977, 1980-1984)

13 Nehru’s legacies His grandson –Rajiv Gandhi –Prime Minister (1984-1989) His granddaughter-in-law –Sonja Gandhi –Congress party president (1999 - )

14 World’s largest democracy Resilient democratic institutions, processes, and legitimacy –except 1975-1977 –Indira Gandhi declared national emergency politics in India is characterized by –governments of precarious coalitions –weakened political institutions –political activism along ethnic lines

15 Turnout % in General Elections

16 A federal system 28 states and 6 centrally administered Union Territories –2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China

17 Federal system Relatively centralized federal government controls the most essential government functions –defense –foreign policy –taxation –public expenditures –economic (industrial) planning

18 The legislature Parliamentary system of government –the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament

19 The legislature bicameral Parliament –Rajya Sabha (Council of States) –Lok Sabha (House of the People)

20 Elections to Lok Sabha Vote share of 3 major political parties

21 Prime Minister Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister prime minister nominates a cabinet –members of Parliament in the ruling coalition –Council of Ministers effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister –where most of the important policies originate

22 Prime Ministers of India 38 years in the Nehru-Gandhi family more and more rapid turnover

23 Economic development Under Prime Minister Nehru’s rule –private property and government guidance –powerful planning commission –government rules and regulations opportunities and incentives for corruption –self-sufficiency domestic sector was protected from foreign competition protected industries became inefficient

24 Economic development The “green revolution” in agriculture –new agricultural strategy in late 1960s –seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation –India became self-sufficient in food

25 Economic development state-led economic development –government-planned private economy –substantial industrial base

26 Economic liberalization Dissatisfaction with the relatively slow economic growth –dismantle controls over private sector –further integrate into global economy Financial crisis in early 1990s –emergency funds from IMF & World Bank –conditional on economic liberalization reduce government budget deficit selling government shares in public enterprises

27 Foreign direct investment

28 Economic liberalization Economic performance –average growth rate of 6% since 1990 –reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points –purchasing power parity GDP: $3 trillion

29 Economic liberalization India has large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language –India is a major exporter of software services and software workers

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