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Electoral Politics. Republic of India A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government capital: New Delhi.

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Presentation on theme: "Electoral Politics. Republic of India A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government capital: New Delhi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electoral Politics

2 Republic of India A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government capital: New Delhi

3 A federal system 28 states and 7 centrally administered Union Territories –2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China

4 Federal system Relatively centralized federal government controls the most essential government functions –defense –foreign policy –taxation –public expenditures –economic (industrial) planning


6 The time is after midnight. An expectant crowd sitting for the past five hours in chowk of the town is waiting for its leader for its leader to come. The organizers assure and reassure the crowd that he would be here any moment. Whenever passing vehicle comes that way. It arouses hopes that he has come. The leader is Mr. Devilal, chief of the Haryana sangharsh samittee, who was to address a meeting in Karnal on Thusrsday night. The 76 years old leader, is a very busy man these days. His day starts at 8 AM, and ends after 11PM……..he had already addressed 9 election meetings since morning….. Mr.Devi Lal has no new philosophy or slogans to give to people of Haryana as he had been constantly addressing public meetings for the past 23 months & preparing for this election. Devi lals approach to his audience is direct. He does not mince words in telling his audience that they should response their in the Lok dal and he would build for them a new Haryana. His slogan Bhrastachar band aur pani prabandh. (End to corruption for water is old as the agiation launched by his sangharsh samitee.

7 On the basis of the above narrative, give examples to prove or refuse the following assertion : i.The party that ruled before the elections and the one that formed government after the elections was the same. Name the party. ii. Devi Lal was very popular among the people at that time. iii. Lok dal did not make any promises to the people. iv. devilal fulfilled his promises to waive off farmer loans on becoming chief minister. v. Devi lal had not given any manifesto to the people. What are the other means by which people could know about their priorities. vi. What are the different methods used by political parties during the election campaign to seek vote.

8 Topic For Disscusion Is Elections Democratic in India??


10 Current composition 43 parties in the 13th Lok Sabha (1999) 39 parties in the 14th Lok Sabha (2004) Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)184138 Indian National Congress (INC)109145 Communist Party of India (M)3443 other political parties218217 total545543


12 1.Releasing election manifesto 2. counting of votes 3. Making of voters list 4.Election campaign 5. Declaration of election results 6.Casting of Votes 7. Ordering of re-poll 8. Announcing election schedule 9.Filing Nomination

13 Indian National Congress Indias oldest political party –since 1885 Indias premier political party –until 1990s in 1960s many regional parties started challenging INCs monopoly on power

14 Indian National Congress Indira Gandhi –created a top-down structure –party leaders appoint party officials –some limited party elections left-of-center, pro-poor political platform

15 Indian National Congress INC moved toward the ideological center –Beginning in 1984 INC today tilts right-of-center –economic efficiency –business interests –limited government spending

16 Indian National Congress INC has always attracted support from diverse social groups in the 1990s INC has lost some of its traditional constituencies among the poor and Muslims

17 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) The major political party in India today right-leaning, Hindu-nationalist party –first major party to mobilize explicitly on the basis of religious identity

18 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) better organized than INC –disciplined party members –carefully selected party cadres –clear and respected authority line within the party

19 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Traditional supporters –urban, lower-middle-class groups base of support widened since mid-1980s –Hindu nationalism –north-central India –decline of Indian National Congress –Muslims as convenient scapegoat for frustration

20 BJPs rapid rise to power electoral success from 1989 to 1999 –difficulty in forming alliance with other parties break with past traditions –relatively moderate, centrist position BJP formed governing coalition in 1998 –collapsed in 1999 BJP formed a new coalition in 1999 –more broadly based than previous coalition

21 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) economic liberalization and stability privilege the interests of the Hindu majority

22 Federal system state governments formally control –agriculture –education –law and order within states –dependent on central government for funds

23 Federal system Balance of power between central and state governments –varies by time and place –state power was constrained during the rule of Nehru and Indira Gandhi –state governments have more room to maneuver when central government is weak since 1998

24 Federal system considerable center-state conflict when ruling political party in a state is different from national ruling party

25 Parallel state structure Formal political structure of the states parallels that of the national government nationalstate PresidentGovernor Prime MinisterChief Minister ParliamentAssembly Supreme CourtHigh Court

26 The legislature Parliamentary system of government –the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament

27 The legislature bicameral Parliament –Rajya Sabha (Council of States) –Lok Sabha (House of the People)

28 Rajya Sabha (Council of States) The Upper House

29 Upper House Rajya Sabha (Council of States) not more than 250 members –12 are nominated by the President of India –the rest are indirectly elected by state Legislative Assemblies The Council of States can not be dissolved –members have terms of 6 years –1/3 members retire at end of every 2nd year

30 Lok Sabha House of the People

31 Lower House Lok Sabha (House of the People) 545 members –2 are appointed by the President of India –the rest are directly elected from single- member districts 5-year terms unless dissolved Lok Sabha elects its presiding officer –the Speaker

32 Lok Sabha Elections held at least every 5 years Prime Minister may call elections earlier 543 single-member districts of roughly equal population party nomination 1st-past-the-post –winner-take-all womens share

33 Elections to Lok Sabha Vote share of 3 major political parties

34 Prime Minister Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister prime minister nominates a cabinet –members of Parliament in the ruling coalition –Council of Ministers effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister –where most of the important policies originate

35 Prime Ministers of India 38 years in the Nehru-Gandhi family more and more rapid turnover

36 The President of India Head of the State Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces elected by an electoral college –national Parliament –state legislature 5-year terms can be reelected

37 The President of India Ceremonial office –symbolize national unity –supposedly above partisan politics mostly acts on the advice of the prime minister President plays a significant role when the selection of a prime minister is complex –in 1998 President requested BJP to form govt.

38 The Judiciary Fundamental contradiction in constitution –principle of parliamentary sovereignty –principle of judicial review

39 The Judiciary judiciary tries to preserve the constitutions basic structure to ensure that legislation conforms with the intent of the constitution parliament tries to assert its right to amend the constitution

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