Presentation on theme: "Common Requirements of living things - ANIMALS – Chapter 5 Pt B."— Presentation transcript:
Common Requirements of living things - ANIMALS – Chapter 5 Pt B
The Circulatory System an Internal Transport System Distributes : – nutrients, – gases – wastes – hormones Blood is : – vital in defence, immunity, – blood clotting and – transfer heat around the body of mammals and birds.
Open Circulatory System No specialised transporting fluid. Instead interstitial fluid is moves freely around the body before eventually returning to the heart. Very low blood pressure and long circuit times.
Closed circulatory systems Blood is enclosed in a system of vessels connected to a muscular heart. Which pumps the blood around the body. Blood is returned very rapidly to the heart and there is a higher blood pressure. Blood is also separated from the interstitial fluid vessel walls allowing the blood to be used for transport and defence. Small molecules like nutrients, gases, water and waste are freely exchanged by diffusion across capillaries. Because larger molecules(blood proteins) can’t diffuse out of the blood, this exerts osmotic effect drawing water back into the blood.
Mammalian Transport Systems There are 2 transport systems in mammals: – The blood circulatory system- majority of the animal’s transport needs. – The lymphatic drainage system-open system that maintains osmotic and fluid balance in tissues and in immune defence.
Internal transport systems Features of effective transport systems Large surface area for exchange both with the environment and internally. A reliable and responsive way of moving fluid(blood) around the body. A fluid that can carry the maximum amount of material. A way to regulate transport according to the needs of the body.
– A fluid material in which substances are transported; blood – A system of blood vessels or spaces throughout the body in which fluid moves – A pump such as the heart that pushes through the blood vessels and spaces. THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM = heart and blood vessels
Red blood cells Biconcave Very flexible No nucleus Packed with haemoglobin Main function is transporting gases Oxygenated blood Deoxygenated Blood
Larger than red blood cells About 1WBC to every 700 RBC Several types but all involved in defence. – Phagocytes: remove debris and fight infection – Lymphocytes: produce antibodies.
Platelets Fragments of cells, important in preventing blood loss and promoting blood clotting.
Arteries and Veins Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Veins carry blood towards the heart. Arteries and veins have the same number of walls but arteries have more muscular walls and veins more elastic walls.
Conduct blood away from the heart. Because of their thicker walls they can withstand greater pressure. Arteries flow into arterioles that then flow into capillaries. Blood pressure decreases as blood flows further along. Conduct blood towards the heart. Pressure in veins is much lower than in arteries. Blood moves along due muscles compressing the veins. Veins have lots of one way valves, that push the blood towards the heart. In the legs the blood has to be returned against gravitational pressure. The negative pressure in the lungs assists in drawing the blood up from the legs.
Tiny, many branched blood capillaries provide a vast surface for exchanging blood. Most cells are no more than 1mm from the nearest capillary. Same diameter as a red blood cell, so they fit in one by one. When the wall of a red blood cell presses on the capillary wall there is an exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. blood vessels
Mammalian Heart Four chambers: The Atria (singular: atrium): – Two top chambers, thinner walls. The Ventricles: – Two bottom chambers, thicker walls. One way valves ensure blood flows in one direction. The heart is very coordinated first the atria contract forcing the blood into the ventricles then the ventricles contract.
Blood Circulation 2 Circulatory pathways- – Pulmonary:To and from the lungs. – Systemic :To and from the rest of the body. The heart Veins and arteries Pulmonary vessels Systemic vessels Capillaries Blood
Blood flow animation Circulatory animations various Blood Flow in heart Pulmonary and System Circulation
Blood pressure Caused by the contraction of the ventricles. The right ventricle is much thinner than the left so the pressure caused by the left ventricle is greater than the right. In the arteries blood pressure changes with every heart beat, this is the pulse you hear on your wrist. The higher systolic pressure occurs when the ventricles contract. The lower diastolic pressure occurs when the ventricles relax.
Right Atria receives deoxygenated blood from body Right Ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs Left Atria receives oxygenated blood from lungs Left Ventricle pumps out aorta to the body Vena cavaeAorta