2 Location Located in the Southern and Eastern Hemispheres. 2,000 miles southeast of AsiaCompletely surrounded by water including: Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean and Coral Sea.
3 Physical FeaturesGreat Barrier Reef – off the northeast coast in the Coral Sea. The world’s largest coral reef.Coral Sea – part of the Pacific Ocean which lies northeast of Australia.Ayers Rock – Huge monolithic rock near the center of the continent stories tall and 6 miles around. It is called Uluru by the Aborigines.Great Victoria Desert – very large desert in Western Australia.
4 Locating Places in Australia Coral SeaAyers RockIndian OceanPacific OceanGreat Victoria DesertWestern AustraliaVictoriaQueenslandNorthern TerritorySouth AustraliaTasmaniaNew South WalesUse outline map provided or switch to flipchart to identify states and physical features.
5 ClimateNorthern Australia is nearer to the equator and has a more tropical climate. Most of the interior is desert. Only the southeast and southwest corners have a temperate climate. Most people live in urban areas on the Southeast and southwest coasts.Because Australia is in the Southern hemisphere, seasons are opposite of the U.S.
6 Review Question Which would be the warmest month in Australia? A. JanuaryB. AugustC. September
7 Economy and TradeAustralia has a mixed economy, very close to market economy.China is a major trading partner. China buys raw materials (natural resources such as iron ore) from Australia and Australia buys finished goods from China.Tourism is important to Australia’s economy. Many tourists from the northern hemisphere like to visit Australia when it is winter where they live.Wool production is another important industry.
8 HistoryThe Aborigines are the native people of Australia. They are believed to have arrived from southeast Asia about 40,000 years ago.Aborigines believe that man (and everything else) was created during the “Dreaming” or “Dream Time”. Their spiritual beliefs center around a reverence for the land.Traditionally aborigines were hunter-gatherers.
9 Arrival of the Europeans The Dutch were the first to discover Australia in the 1600’s, but did not send colonists to the continent.In 1770, Captain James Cook claimed the land for England and the colony of New South Wales was established in 1788.The first settlers were prisoners, the marines sent to guard them, and the wives of the marines.The arrival of the Europeans had many negative effects on the Aborigines including the loss of their land and death due to new diseases such as smallpox.Review how loss of Am. Revolution led to this.
10 The British continued to send prisoners to Australia until 1868 but by then many non-prisoners had also begun to settle there.A gold rush in the 1850s brought thousands of new settlers to Australia both from Great Britain and other countries.The commonwealth of Australia was established in 1901.
11 GovernmentAustralia has a federal government system – power is split between the central government (in the capital of Canberra) and the state governments.Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state for Australia but her duties are carried out by the governor-general.The Prime Minister is the head of government. The prime minister is the leader of the political party with the most members in the Parliament.
12 Australia’s government is bicameral. House of Representatives - Australia is divided into electorates. Each electorate elects a MP to the House of Representatives. Electorates are based on population, therefore states with large populations have many electorates and those that are sparsely populated may only have one.Senate – Each state elects 12 senators regardless of population.The winning political party is called the “government” and the political party that comes in second is called the “opposition”.
13 Review QuestionWhich official do citizens of Australia vote into office:A. monarchB. Prime ministerC. governor-generalD. member of Parliament
14 Literacy rate – high except among aborigines Language and religionBecause of the settlement by the British, the language of Australia is English. Today 79% speak English as their native language.The British also brought Christianity to Australia. Today most Australians are Christian - 27 % are Protestant and 26% are Catholic.Literacy rate – high except among aboriginesStandard of living – high except among aboriginesAborigines have a lower life expectancy, earn less income and do not have access to good health care.Discuss continuing discrimination towards aborigines – changes in 1960s.