3 Objectives11/17/10Students will be able to… 30. Summarize the major features of the Mauryan and Gupta Empires. 31. Describe the major beliefs and traditions of Buddhism.
4 Aryan KingdomsAryan kingdoms dominated India beginning around 1000 BCENo single, unified leaderRun over by Alexander the Great (we’ll talk about him later)
5 Objective #30Split GRAPESDraw a line down the center of the GRAPES chart to divide it in twoOn the left side, write Mauryan EmpireOn the right side, write Gupta EmpireAt the bottomLeft: write “321 BCE to 232 BCE”Right: write “320 CE to 500’s CE”
12 Geography Mauryan Empire united Indian subcontinent Ganges and Indus RiversUp to the Himalaya and Hindu-Kush Mountains
13 Religion Mainly Hinduism Ashoka (a king) spread Buddhism through missionaries
14 Achievements Under Chandragupta United India for the first time Strong bureaucracyUnder AshokaReligious toleranceBuilt roads, free hospitals, hotels
15 Political Chandragupta conquered the empire and established a dynasty Bureaucracy helped run the governmentAshokaBecame a non-violent Buddhist, used the government to care for his people rather than gain wealth or power
16 Asoka says:All men are my children. What I desire for my own children, and I desire their welfare and happiness both in this world and the next, that I desire for all men. You do not understand to what extent I desire this, and if some of you do understand, you do not understand the full extent of my desire.
17 More Political People liked Ashoka Good ruler, but weakened the governmentNo strong ruler followed himEmpire fell apart
18 Economic Very heavy taxes to pay for the army and public works Political centralization opens India to trade with China and Persia
24 Achievements The Golden Age of India Gupta = Golden! Trade by land and sea, east and westDevelop astronomy, advanced math (the numbers you use), calendarDevelop banking, incredible amounts of wealthHelps spread culture, art, literature
25 Political Gupta kings used marriage (and an army) to create an empire Last strong king declines in 415 CE, empire starts to collapseIn the 500s CE, invaders “without settled homes” attack India
26 Economic Very rich empire (but only the kings got rich) Invented bankingLOTS of trade
29 Hinduism’s Problems Some people did not like Inequality Inaccessibility (need priests to interact with gods for you)
30 The SolutionA new faith, started by a Hindu prince who meditated on the world’s problemsSiddhartha Gautama grew up sheltered from the world. When he left his palace, he was shocked by what he sawBecame the founder of Buddhism
31 Buddha Siddhartha left his life in a palace to seek wisdom No one he met had anySo he meditated under a tree until he finally discovered the truth about the worldHe became known as the Buddha: awakened or enlightened one
32 Four Noble Truths To live is to suffer Suffering is caused by desire To end suffering, you must get rid of all desiresTo do so, follow the Eightfold Path to enlightenment
33 Get on the path! Tear a sheet of paper into 8 squares On four of the squares, write down things that cause you to sufferOn four of the squares, write down things that you desireCrumble each square into a ball
34 Rid yourself of your suffering and desires! Get on the path!Rid yourself of your suffering and desires!Throw them at the recycling bin!
35 NirvanaBuddha and his followers believed he had achieved enlightenment, what they called nirvanaEnlightenment can be achieved by acting, thinking, and believing in the proper wayNirvana ends your soul’s reincarnation
36 Karma Buddhists believe in karma, much like Hindus Instead of determining caste, karma provides your reincarnated self with desirable qualities (wealth, beauty, influence, etc.)Karma is based on your intentions, not just your actions
37 Solving Problems Hinduism has inequality Buddhism rejects the caste system. All Buddhists belong to the religious community (sangha)Hinduism is inaccessible, requires priestsBuddhism is very personal, individual meditation and self-improvementCan reach nirvana in a single lifetime
38 About BuddhaBuddha is not a god! “Buddha” is a title granted to Siddhartha GautamaFat Buddha, and Buddha worship, is a later Chinese development