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THE United nations.

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Presentation on theme: "THE United nations."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE United nations

2 General The UN → international organization committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights

3 currently 193 member states (Croatia joined in 1992)
headquarters: New York City six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish financed through contributions from its member states Secretay-General: Ban Ki-moon (since 2007)


5 History founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries
the term “United Nations” was coined by F. D. Roosevelt (1942) the aim → to maintain peace through international cooperation and collective security The UN’s forerunner is the League of Nations established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles

6 Internal structure six principal organs:
General Assembely (Opća skupština) Security Council (Vijeće sigurnosti) Economic and Social Council (Gospodarsko i socijalno vijeće) International Court of Justice (Međunarodni sud pravde) Secretariat (Tajništvo) Trusteeship Council (Starateljsko vijeće) - inactive

7 The UN General Assembly
the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN comprises all 193 member states oversees the budget decides on the admission of new members meets in regular yearly sessions  receives reports from other parts of the United Nations and make recommendations on peace and security, budgetary concerns and the election, admission, suspension or expulsion of members

8 The UN Security Council
maintains international peace and security 15 members 5 permanent: China, France, Russia, UK, USA (veto powers) 10 non permanent – for two-years term the presidency – rotated alphabetically each month the most powerful organ of the UN → the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states

9 decisions include:  - peacekeeping, - peace enforcement-missions - non-military pressure mediums (trade embargos, economic sanctions)  peacekeepers are soldiers nicknamed "Blue Helmets“

10 The UN Economic and Social Council
the principal organ to coordinate the economic, social and related work of the UN and the specialized agencies and institutions raising the general standard of living, solving economic, social and health problems, promoting human rights, culture and education, as well as humanitarian aid 54 members elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term meets once a year in July for a four-week session

11 The UN Secretariat administrative organ of the UN
carries out the day-to-day work → various tasks concerning all issues the UN deals with Secretary General (the most important representative of the UN) assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide it provides studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN bodies for their meetings NYC + main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna

12 The International Court of Justice
the principal judicial organ of the UN based in the Hague functions as universal court for international law settle legal disputes submitted to it by states provide advisory opinions on legal questions the 15 judges are elected by the General Assembly for the term of nine years renders judgements by relative majority

13 The UN Trusteeship Council
it was established to supervise the administration of Trust Territories placed under the Trusteeship System Trust Territories were former colonies under Trusteeship Council guaranteed that appropriate measures were taken to prepare such Territories for autonomy or independence its operation was suspended on 1 November 1994, with the independence of Palau

14 Other specialized agencies
each primary organ of the UN can establish various specialized agencies to fulfill its duties autonomous organizations working with the UN and each other today there are 17 agencies: UNESCO, IMF, WHO, FAO, UNHCR, UNOCD, UN-Habitat, UNAIDS, UNECE, UN-Women …

15 It’s your world!

16 The Charter of the United Nations
the foundational treaty of the UN signed on 26 June 1945 entered into force on 24 October 1945 all members are bound by its articles obligations to the UN prevail over all other treaty obligations most countries in the world have now ratified the Charter The statute of International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter

The Purposes of the United Nations are: To maintain international peace and security To develop friendly relations among nations To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.

18 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
one of the biggest UN achievements adopted by the UN General Assembly on December 10, 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris based on the experience of the Second World War represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are entitled consists of 30 articles it is part of The International Bill of Human Rights

19 The International Bill of Human Rights
an informal name given to two international treaties and one General Assembly resolution established by the UN It consists of: 1. the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted in 1948), 2. the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) with its two Optional Protocols 3. the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) The two covenants entered into force in 1976, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified them.

20 Exercise Match the words with their definitions:
Answers: 1c, 2d, 3b, 4e, 5a a) A set of basic laws, principles and rights that a country or organization is governed by. b) A formal and official expression of opinion or will of a legislative body or assembled group. c) A proposed law under consideration by a legislative body. d) An official statement intended to create, preserve, assert, or testify to a right. e) An introductory clause in a constitution, statute, or other legal instrument which states the intent of that instrument. 1. BILL 2. DECLARATION 3. RESOLUTION 4. PREAMBLE 5. CHARTER

21 International human rights law
designed to promote and protect human rights at the international, regional and domestic levels binding instruments: treaties and customary international law international human rights law – in the context of ordinary life international humanitarian law – during armed conflict

22 The UN CRC the Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most rapidly and widely ratified international human rights treaty in history  the UN General Assembly unanimously adopted the text of the Convention on the Rights of the Child on 20 November 1989 became legally binding in September 1990, after 20 states had ratified it the USA and Somalia

23 Thank you!

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