Relationship Issues Why do people Marry? Is it important for romantic love to be present? What happens to relationships when they are outside the societal norms?
Relationship Issues Divorce - The legal dissolution of a marriage Marriages between between individuals who are from different social and cultural backgrounds are more likely to end in divorce (p.226). Couples are not able to negotiate satisfying relationships Conflict occurs
Problems: Violence Extra - marital relationships Betrayal of trust No respect Couples may seek help Divorce becomes the solution when no resolve is found
Relationship Issues - Intermarriage Intermarriage or Heterogamy - Marriage between partners who are from different social, racial, ethnic, or cultural backgrounds Interfaith marriage - When you marry a person who is not the same faith as yourself Intermarriage is very common in Canadian society because it is a diverse society (p.229). Children from all races are socialized and therefore become 'colour blind' - see others of different races, ethnicity and religious backgrounds as equal
Relationship Issues - Intermarriage Intermarriage brings together two individuals who share the same contemporary culture but have different roots Prejudices that surround race indicate that people marry outside of their own race because: 1.They are motivated by rebellion 2.There is a desire to marry 'up', to someone of a more desirable race (p. 230)
Relationship Issues - Intermarriage When individuals have the same socio-economic backgrounds, racial differences have little impact on the aspirations and the reasons why individuals choose to marry Couple may identify with more that one racial community It becomes challenging to raise a bi-racial child It reflects that both individuals reflect their own identities
Relationship Issues - Interfaith An interfaith couple will experience problems Partners may have the same educational, socio- economic background however their family and social experiences will differ Couples face difficulties within their families and relationships Couples will decide how to recognize religious holidays
Relationship Issues - Interfaith Couples who respect each other are willing to compromise Couples must decide if they are willing to compromise their faith They must decide what faith identity that they want to provide to their children Interfaith marriages are more likely to succeed if one partner is wiling to give up their faith (p. 232)
Relationship Issues - Ethnicity What is ethnicity?
Relationship Issues - Ethnicity It is very complex Individuals who have 2 cultures for example, Japanese Canadian Individuals will adhere to a a specific value system, family structure and role expectations Major variations among ethnic groups is gender roles However this is changing due to the women who are now entering the workforce, child care, and social programs
Relationship Issues - Same - Sex Marriage Same - Sex Marriage - A relationship between 2 people who are of the same sex There has been an increasing acceptance of heterosexual relationships In the past there has been a great resistance to same sex couples, but now surveys and studies show that there is a greater acceptance towards same-sex couples However discrimination still exists against LGBTQ
Relationship Issues - Same - Sex Couples Greek Philosophy - What would Plato say?
Relationship Issues - Same - Sex Marriage On July 20th 2005, Canada became the fourth country in the world to legalize same - sex marriage Regardless of sexual orientation psychologists and sociologist state that individuals have the same expectations as individuals who are involved in a heterosexual relationship (p. 236).
Relationship Issues - Infidelity Infidelity - This takes place when an individual has an extra-marital affair Evolutionary Psychologist - it is inherent in human nature to be unfaithful Functionalist Perspective - Western societies define extra-marital sexual relationships to be unacceptable Limiting sexual partners is beneficial to the development of health conjugal relationships
Relationship Issues - Infidelity Functionalist's perspective - The functions of society have to be met Adultery does not work to benefit society Canadians do not approve of extra - marital sex However... when a general survey was conducted 23% of men and 12% of women said that they had an extra marital affair (p. 238).
Relationship Issues - Infidelity Psychologists and marriage counsellors state that people have extra-marital affairs when their needs are not being met in their marriage Research on moral development suggests that individuals act out of self-interest (p. 238-239)
Relationship Issues - Infidelity Men - are more likely to have extra-marital relationship that is primarily sexual Women - are more likely to seek an affair based on romance and affection (p.239, Nannini, 2000). Men are more likely to seek younger women for extra- marital affairs Infidelity results in divorce 65% of the time
Relationship Issues - Spousal Violence Victim of violence - A person who has been mistreated in marriage or in a common-law relationship The ideal of marriage as an enduring romantic relationship is tarnished by the fact that marriage can be dangerous, especially for women Spousal Violence - physical, sexual, emotional, verbal, economic
Relationship Issues - Spousal Violence What does violence look like to you?
Relationship Issues - Spousal Violence Violence - any action that is intended to physically hurt someone Domestic Violence - A pattern of behavior that is intended to hurt someone Until the mid - twentieth century it was assumed a private matter Police could only lay charges if they had witnessed the abuse Violence within intimate relationships is now defined as assault Police are required to respond to domestic calls and lay charges wherever there is evidence of assault
Relationship Issues - Spousal Violence The Intergenerational Cycle of Violence - describes that individuals who have experienced violence or abuse as a child, are more likely to become either victims or perpetrators of violence in their intimate relationships (p. 244). Social theorist suggest that carrying out violence is a learned behavior and can essentially be unlearned Victims and perpetrators can learn more effective ways of dealing with anger and and resolving conflict to break the cycle
Risk factors: Unemployment personal bankruptcy a drop in wage salary taking an additional job to make sure that ends meet child support payments A move to less - expensive accommodations loss of income career set-backs some other negative change in economic circumstances
Relationship Issues - Spousal Violence What happens after the cycle of violence is broken? 2 additional stages might occur after this 1.Terror - Some women stay in their relationships because of their lives or the lives of their children 2.Homicide - in some cases the victims are killed by the perpetrator In Canada there are social and legal systems that provide support for victims of domestic violence
Relationship Issues - Divorce Divorce results in the failure of a marriage to meet the expectations of one or both marriage partners The divorce rate is increasing (refer to table on p.250) Divorce was rare in the early 20th century The development of romantic love and the changing role of women altered the criteria with which partners assessed their satisfaction with their relationship (p.251). The Divorce Act 1985 (Read section on p. 251)
Relationship Issues - Divorce The Social Exchange Perspective - When the costs of the relationship become to high and the alternatives become more attractive then individuals will choose to divorce The adjustment for divorce occurs on 2 levels 1.Emotional Level 2.Practical Level
Relationship Issues - Divorce The decision for divorce occurs in a 3 phase process: 1.Awareness Phase - One individual decides to initiate divorce 2.Separation Phase - The couple plan to break - up 3.Reorganization Phase - Individuals establish separate lives and negotiate their new parental roles if they have children