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Comparison of Energy Resources IB Syllabus: 3.3.1-3.3.3 AP Syllabus Ch 15, 16 Video – A Crude Awakening.

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Presentation on theme: "Comparison of Energy Resources IB Syllabus: 3.3.1-3.3.3 AP Syllabus Ch 15, 16 Video – A Crude Awakening."— Presentation transcript:

1 Comparison of Energy Resources IB Syllabus: 3.3.1-3.3.3 AP Syllabus Ch 15, 16 Video – A Crude Awakening

2 had-fossil-fuel-like-subsidies-infographic/ had-fossil-fuel-like-subsidies-infographic/

3 3.3.1: Outline the range of energy resources available to a society 3.3.2: Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of two contrasting energy sources 3.3.3: Discuss the factors that effect the choice of energy sources adopted by different societies

4 Vocabulary Greenhouse gases Renewable natural capital Non renewable natural capital Pollution

5 Energy Resources Fossil fuels  coal, oil, natural gas Nuclear  fission, fusion Solar  passive, active Hydroelectric Geothermal Wind The relative use of different forms depends on the particular area, its needs and its own available resources

6 World Nuclear power 6% Hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind 7% Natural Gas 12% Biomass 11% Oil 32% Coal 21%

7 United States Nuclear power 8% Hydropower geothermal solar, wind 4% Biomass 4% Natural Gas 23% Oil 39% Coal 22%

8 Energy consumption (quadrillion Btus) 60 50 30 20 10 19701980199020002010 Year 40 2020 HistoryProjections Oil Natural gas Coal Nuclear Nonhydro renewable Renewable hydro

9 Year 21002025195018751800 0 20 40 60 80 100 Contribution to total energy consumption (percent) Wood Coal Oil Nuclear Hydrogen Solar Natural gas

10 When will it all run out? Future of nonrenewable resources depends on 1.Actual or Potential supply 2.Rate of consumption Economic depletion – costs too much to use Depletion time – time to use 80% of resource Traditional measure of availability is reserve to production ratio – change is based on new sources and new processes

11 PresentDepletion time A Depletion time B Depletion time C Time Production C B A Recycle, reuse, reduce consumption; increase reserves by improved mining technology, higher prices, and new discoveries Recycle; increase reserves by improved mining technology, higher prices, and new discoveries Mine, use, throw away; no new discoveries; rising prices Depletion Curves

12 Economics & Mineral Resources Resources are unequally distributed on the earth by geologic processes In free market economy high supply should = lower price, while scarcity = increased price Theory may no longer apply because of governmental control of resources & prices Government Subsidies, Lower taxes, & increased purchasing power all benefit mining companies

13 Most power generation regardless of the type is based on heating water to create Steam to turn a turbine and run a dynamo to create the electricity

14 Low land use Easily transported within and between countries High net energy yield Low cost (with huge subsidies) Ample supply for 42–93 years Advantages Moderate water pollution Releases CO 2 when burned Air pollution when burned Artificially low price encourages waste and discourages search for alternatives Need to find substitute within 50 years Disadvantages Efficient distribu- tion system Oil


16 AdvantagesDisadvantages Moderate existing supplies Large potential supplies High costs Low net energy yield Large amount of water needed to process Severe land disruption from surface mining Water pollution from mining residues Air pollution when burned CO 2 emissions when burned Easily transported within and between countries Efficient distribution system in place Coal

17 Low risk of accidents because of multiple safety systems (except in 35 poorly designed and run reactors in former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe) Moderate land use Moderate land disruption and water pollution (without accidents) Emits 1/6 as much CO 2 as coal Low environmental impact (without accidents) Large fuel supply Spreads knowledge and technology for building nuclear weapons No acceptable solution for long-term storage of radioactive wastes and decommissioning worn-out plants Catastrophic accidents can happen (Chernobyl) High environmental impact (with major accidents) Low net energy yield High cost (even with large subsidies) AdvantagesDisadvantages Nuclear Power

18 Renewable energy

19 AdvantagesDisadvantages Fairly high net energy Work on cloudy days Quick installation Easily expanded or moved No CO 2 emissions Low environmental impact Last 20-40 years Low land use (if on roof or built into walls or windows) Reduce dependence on fossil fuels Need access to sun Low efficiency Need electricity storage system or backup High land use (solar cell power plants) could disrupt desert areas High costs (but should be competitive in 5-15 years) DC current must be converted to AC Solar Power

20 Transfer to a Sustainable Energy Future

21 Improve Energy Efficiency Increase fuel-efficiency standards for vehicles, buildings, and appliances Mandate government purchases of efficient vehicles and other devices Provide large tax credits for buying efficient cars, houses, and appliances Offer large tax credits for investments in efficiency Reward utilities for reducing demand Encourage independent power producers Greatly increase efficiency research and development More Renewable Energy Increase renewable energy to 20% by 2020 and 50% by 2050 Provide large subsidies and tax credits for renewable energy Use full-cost accounting and least-cost analysis for com- paring all energy alternatives Encourage government purchase of renewable energy devices Greatly increase renewable energy research and development Reduce Pollution and Health Risk Cut coal use 50% by 2020 Phase out coal subsidies Levy taxes on coal and oil use Phase out nuclear power or put it on hold until 2020 Phase out nuclear power subsidies

22 So why use one type over another Iceland uses geothermal energy because of their location and its low environmental impacts China, US, Russia use coal because they have a lot of it available and it’s cheap economically US dependence on oil is cultural because of our insistence on cars, suburbs, bigger, more, better EU more nuclear power use because of environmental benefits and they have the technology to do it LDCs use wood, dung other biofuels that are easily collected

23 With impending effects of climate change the use of carbon dioxide producing energy sources is being questioned around the world Our dependence is deep  how will we change something that is so deeply ingrained in our way of life?

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