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Dania, Shana, Brian, & Mark Spring ‘05 Alternative Energy.

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Presentation on theme: "Dania, Shana, Brian, & Mark Spring ‘05 Alternative Energy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dania, Shana, Brian, & Mark Spring ‘05 Alternative Energy

2 Coal: The Ignoble Fuel

3 Types of Coal: Based on carbon content Brown Coal aka Lignite Hard Coal aka Black Coal

4 The Composition of Coal Main Elements: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur

5 Coal Formation: Plant material decomposes  Peat is covered with mud and sand  Pressure Changes Peat to Coal

6 Coal Extraction Two Types of Mines: Surface Mines Deep Mines

7 Facts about coal: United States -Coal fills 23% of our energy demand -Coal represents more than 80 percent of America’s known recoverable fossil fuel reserves. -The United States has 500 billion tons of coal accessible through current production methods. Worldwide -Mined in 100 different countries on every continent except Antarctica -Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel

8 US Coal Production:

9 Coal Uses Major Uses: 1)Electric Power 2)Industry 3)Manufacturing of steel

10 The Down Side: Environmental Issues -Coal is the least desirable fossil fuel. -Negative pollution effects on water & air erosion, & acid rain In the US, federal laws enforce proper mine usage and restoration. Also, several acts including the Clean Air and Water Acts control the effects of coals negative externalities. Social Issues -Boomtowns -Job Dangers

11 Future Outlook: - At current rates, coal resources will last over a thousand years -Advances in coal mining technology will only add distance to that horizon -Increasing coal usage can lessen oil consumption

12 Natural Gas

13 History: -residential -commercial - industrial Uses: -1000 B.C. gas springs -natural fires

14 -colorless, shapeless, & odorless in pure form -combustible & when burned released energy -clean burning & emits lower levels of potentially harmful byproducts -combustible mixture of hydrocarbon gases Natural Gas:

15 Basic Compositions of Natural Gas: MethaneCH 4 ~70-90% EthaneC 2 H 6 ~0-20% PropaneC 3 H 8 ~0-20% ButaneC 4 H 10 ~0-20%

16 Formation & Extraction: -Found in reservoirs underneath the earth- natural gas is commonly associated with oil deposits -Formed from the remains of plants, animals & microorganisms -Production (extraction) companies search for evidence reservoirs with use of sophisticated technology- wells are then drilled

17 Advanced 3-D Seismic Imaging & 4-D Seismic Imaging

18 Total energy consumed in US: 2000 source: EIA outlook Uses of natural gas---->

19 Pollutant Natural Gas Oil Coal Carbon Dioxide 117,000 164,000 208,000 Carbon Monoxide 40 33 208 Nitrogen Oxides 92 448 457 Sulfur Dioxide 1 1,122 2,591 Particulates 7 84 2,744 Mercury 0.000 0.007 0.016 Fossil Fuel Emission Levels (Pounds per Billion Btu of Energy Input) Source: EIA - Natural Gas Issues and Trends 1998

20 -cost efficient -domestically abundant -secure source of energy -relatively environmentally friendly Overview of natural gas:

21 OIL

22 Oil: A familiar & popular fossil fuel 3 phases of production: -primary - secondary -tertiary Crude oil loop----->

23 Products:

24 Oil extracting/producing nations: -Saudi Arabia -United States -Russia [FSU] -Iran -Venezuela -Iraq

25 Oil & the damages: Environmental: -emissions of greenhouse gasses -acid rain -addition of toxins -over consumption -unfriendly production -spills

26 Impacts cont. Solutions: -social & political -dependencies -economical/industrial -careful consumption & reduction -more efficient use of oil & oil products -cleaner & more environmentally responsive production methods

27 Future of oil & fossil fuels:


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