Chapter 18: Part #1 Oil Fossil Fuels and the Environment.
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Chapter 18: Part #1 Oil Fossil Fuels and the Environment
Fossil Fuels Forms of stored solar energy created from incomplete biological decomposition of dead organic matter. 1.Crude Oil 2.Natural Gas 3.Coal
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Crude Oil –Naturally occurring petroleum, normally pumped from wells in oil fields. –Refinement of crude oil produces most of the petroleum products we use today. Natural Gas –Naturally occurring gaseous hydrocarbon generally produced in association with crude oil or from gas wells. –An important efficient and clean burning fuel commonly used in homes and industry. Gives off less CO 2
Pg. 366 – World energy consumption by primary sources in 2004.
Anticline oil & gas trap Fault oil & gas trap Oil & gas fields from which we extract resources are places where natural upward migration of the oil and gas to the surface is interrupted by what is known as a “trap”. The rock that helps form the trap is called a “cap rock”. Pg. 367
Oil in the 21 st Century 1.The U.S. (and a number of other regions) has an energy problem caused by dependence of fossil fuels, especially oil. 2.Maximum global production is expected between 2020 and 2050 1.Peak Oil 3.The challenge is to plan for the decline in oil supply and shift to alternative energy sources.
Pg. 368 – Proven world oil reserves (billions of barrels) in 2004. The Middle East dominates with 62% of total reserves.
Pg. 369 – Major trade routes for the world’s oil in 04’, emphasizing the countries that use Middle Eastern oil.
Methane Hydrates White ice-like compound made up of molecules of methane gas trapped in “cages” of frozen water in the sediments of the deep seafloor –This is a potential energy source –Contains ~twice as much energy as all of the known natural gas, oil, and coal deposits on Earth
Environmental Effects of Oil and Natural Gas Recovery: damage to fragile ecosystems, water and air pollution, and waste disposal Refining: soil, water and air pollution Delivery and Use: energy to power automobiles, produce electricity, etc.
To Drill or Not to Drill? 1)The U.S. needs oil 2)New oil facilities = jobs 3)We know it’s there 4)Use of new drilling practices do less harm to the environment 5)The land affected will be small relative to the total area
To Drill or Not to Drill? 1)Wilderness should remain to be wilderness 2)Even with the best technology, oil drilling will affect ANWR 3)Ice roads will have to be constructed (1 million gallons) of water 4)Accidents may occur 5)Oil development will be damaging because it involves people, vehicles, equipment, pipelines, etc.
Chapter 18: Part #2 Coal Fossil Fuels and the Environment
Coal Solid, brittle, carbonaceous rock that is one of the world’s most abundant fossil fuels. Classified according to energy content as well as carbon and sulfur content
Pg. 375 – Process by which buried plant debris (peat) is transformed into coal. World coal reserves
Coal Mining and the Environment Strip Mining –A surface mining process in which the overlying layer of soil and rock is stripped off to reach the coal
Underground Mining –Associated with environmental problems including acid mine drainage, land subsidence and coal fires –~40% in U.S.
The Future of Coal –Scrubbing: removes sulfur dioxides Scrubbers are large structures of calcium carbonate –Calcium Carbonate reacts with sulfur dioxides and turns into “sludge” which has to be carefully collected and disposed of Allowance Trading –Reduces pollution –EPA grants utility companies tradable allowances for polluting
Oil Shale and Tar Sands Oil Shale –A fine-grained sedimentary rock containing organic matter When superheated (destructive distillation) shale gives ~14gal of oil per ton of shale –The oil is a synfuel Tar Sands –Sedimentary rocks or sands impregnated with tar oil, asphalt or bitumen Recovered by mining the sands and then washing the oil with hot water