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Unit One: Parts of Speech

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1 Unit One: Parts of Speech
English Center Tutor Training ESOL

2 Table of Contents Unit 1: Parts of Speech
Unit 2: Phrases, Clauses, and Sentence Structure Unit 3: Simple & Progressive Verbs Unit 4: Perfect & Passive Verbs Unit 5: Complex Sentences Unit 6: Overview of City ESOL Program

3 Introduction The purpose of these modules is to review key grammar points that are taught in the ESOL program at City College and to offer suggestions for assisting ESOL students with grammar and sentence structure. Though the grammatical concepts will be familiar to you, explaining them to second-language students and providing examples may be a new experience. It is our hope that these materials will enable you to work more effectively and enthusiastically with ESOL students. As you go through the presentation, please answer the questions posed (in your head) before clicking on the answer. Have fun!

4 Review Parts of Speech Tests to determine which part of speech…
What are the parts of speech? What is a noun? What is a verb? What is an adjective? What is an adverb? Tests to determine which part of speech… Adverbs Nouns Verbs Adjectives A person, place, thing, idea, or feeling A word that expresses an action or state A word that describes or modifies a noun A word that describes or modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb

5 Let’s Practice Given these definitions, answer the following question: What part of speech is the word explosion? Answering this question shows why these definitions can sometimes be problematic for students. It’s reasonable to think that explosion is a verb because it expresses an action. However, it is a noun.

6 Identifying Parts of Speech
In addition to these types of definitions, there are other ways to identify parts of speech. One is to look at the context (surrounding words). Another is to look at suffixes (word endings). There are a series of “tests” that you can perform to identify a word’s part of speech. Answering these test questions accurately requires a certain level of fluency. Therefore, these tests are not recommended for students at the lower levels. However, they are useful tools to have available. Tutoring Note!

7 Noun Test 1 One way to test whether or not a word is a noun is to look at the context. Most singular nouns have a, an, or the preceding them. Plural nouns may have nothing or the preceding them. These words are called articles, and they are one type of determiner. (More explanation on this later.)  To test if the word explosion is a noun, we can see if it sounds correct to put an article in front of it. Example 1: Can you say the explosion? Example 1 works. Thus, we can identify explosion as a noun.

8 Noun Test 1 Let’s try it with another example, and test whether or not the word speak is a noun. Example 2: Can you say the speak? Example 2 does not sound correct. This is an indication that speak is not a noun.

9 Caution! Not all nouns can have determiners in front of them. For example, you wouldn’t say the Chad even though Chad is a noun; it is a proper noun. Thus, you would want to perform more tests. To identify a word as a noun, it needs to pass at least one test. It can fail the others. But before we go on to explain these additional tests, let’s answer a question you may have: What is a determiner?

10 What is a determiner? There are three categories of determiners. If there is a determiner, a noun has to follow at some point (although there might be other words in between). 1. Articles the, a, an 2. Show Possession his, her, their, my, our, its, your 3. Show Location this, that, these, those the kitten her dog this rabbit… that turtle…

11 Noun Test 2 A sentence consists of a noun phrase and a verb phrase. (More explanation on this later.)  The subject of a sentence must be a noun. For example, we have the following sentence: Tutors help students. Tutors is the subject of this sentence; thus, we can identify it as a noun. Noun Phrase Verb Phrase

12 Speaking in a foreign language is difficult.
Noun Test 2 First, let’s practice identifying subjects. In the following sentence, which word is the subject, or main noun, that the verb must agree with? Speaking in a foreign language is difficult. If you said speaking is the subject, then you are correct! Language is not the main noun.

13 Noun Test 2 Now let’s test whether the word run is a noun. We can put it in the subject of a sentence. Does the following sentence sound correct? Example 1: Run is fun! Example 1 is not correct because run is a verb, so it cannot be the subject of a sentence. We can, however, change it to a noun form to make it work. This –ing noun form is called a gerund. Running is fun!

14 Noun Test 3 Nouns are the only word forms that can be made plural. Thus, if you can make it plural, then it must be a noun. However, keep in mind that not all nouns can be made plural. These are called non-count nouns. Let’s test whether the word ball is a noun. Example 1: Can you say balls? Example 1 works, so we can know that ball is a noun.

15 Noun Test 3 Now let’s test whether the word beneficial is a noun. Example 2: Can you say beneficials? Example 2 does not sound correct. This indicates that beneficial is not a noun. In fact, it is an adjective.

16 Caution! When a subject is third-person singular (he, she, it), then an –s is added to the end of the verb. Be careful not to confuse third-person singular –s with plural –s! Speak is NOT a noun, but you sometimes put an –s at the end. For example: He speaks Japanese fluently.

17 Review of Noun Tests balls *beneficials Test 1: Determiner?
The ________ the explosion *the speak Test 2: Sentence subject? Noun Phrase + Verb Phrase = Sentence Running is fun. *Run is fun. Test 3: Plural? ________s balls *beneficials * = Fails test/not grammatical

18 Verb Test Verbs are the only word forms that can be changed to the past tense. Thus, you would be able to test whether explosion is a verb by trying to change the tense. Example 1: Can you say explosioned? Example 1 does not work because explosion is not a verb. Let’s compare that to the word walk. Example 2: Can you say walked? Example 2 works, so we know that walk is a verb.

19 Adjective Test As stated before, adjectives are words that describe a noun. One test to tell if something is an adjective is the location in a phrase. Adjectives can go before nouns (and between a determiner and noun.) We know that the word sandwich is a noun as it passes all three tests. Now let’s test whether the word delicious is an adjective. Example 1: Can you say the delicious sandwich? Example 1 works, so we know that delicious is an adjective.

20 Caution! Sometimes nouns act like adjectives. When this happens, the noun is always singular. For example, ant is a noun, but in the following example it is functioning as an adjective: I have an ant farm.

21 Adverb Test An adverb can describe an adjective, a verb, or another adverb. Many adverbs have an -ly suffix, making them easier to identify. Example 1: She walks very quickly. We might automatically know that quickly is an adverb because of the -ly suffix. Additionally, its function in the sentence is to describe how the person walks. Moreover, very is an adverb which intensifies the adverb, quickly.

22 Adverb Test Do you think that this sentence is grammatically correct? Example 1: Professors write clear. This sentence is not grammatical because clear is describing the verb, write, and thus requires the adverb form, clearly. The example should be: Professors write clearly.

23 Word Families Word Families are words that share the same root or base form. They are usually different parts of speech. Example 1: Every week I prioritize my assignments. Example 2: My top priority this semester is passing the class. Verb Noun

24 Word Families success succeed successful successfully Noun
Success in school will help me get a good job. success She succeeds every time she tries something new. Verb succeed Adjective He is a successful lawyer. successful Adverb I want to successfully complete this class. successfully

25 Caution! The suffixes –ing and –ed can be used to make more than one part of speech. Example 1: I am working hard today. Example 2: Working hard is essential. Example 3: Today’s class bored me. Example 4: I am not bored by grammar! Example 5: She is boring. Verb Noun Verb Adjectives

26 Tutoring Note! There are many other suffixes. Recognizing the more common ones will assist students in using the correct word form. Nouns Verbs Adjectives -tion -ize -ate -ous -ent -ment -ity -en -ful -ness -ify -less -ance -ism -able -er entertainment heighten outrageous

27 Let’s Practice: Complete the chart.
Nouns Verbs Adjectives achievement establish strategy motivation impress emphatic prescribe renew reserved organization achieve achievable establishment established strategize strategic motivate motivated; motivational impression impressive emphasis emphasize prescription prescribed renewal renewed; renewable reservation reserve organize organized

28 Tutoring Note! ESOL students often write sentences that sound odd or confusing because they have used parts of speech or word forms incorrectly. If you can help them identify these errors, then their sentences may become more understandable.

29 Scene One Tutoring Note!
A student’s sentence is I analysis the problem. There are many ways to assist him in correcting this error. Here’s one: Tutor: What part of speech is analysis? Student: I don’t know. Tutor: Let’s look it up! Student: Analysis is a noun. Tutor: What part of speech do you need here? Student: A verb. Tutor: That’s right! What’s the verb form of analysis? Can you find it? Student: Analyze. Tutor: Great!

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