Presentation on theme: "Measuring Learning Outcomes Evaluation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Measuring Learning Outcomes Evaluation Objectives:By the end of the lecture, the student will be able to:Define evaluation in educationState purposes of evaluation (why we evaluate?)List five basic components of evaluationState what we want to evaluate?Differentiate between evaluation and assessmentList steps of student evaluationIdentify different types of evaluationSelect appropriate evaluation Methodologies according educational objectives and domains to be evaluatedMention qualities of test
3 Definition of evaluation Evaluation is defined as a systematic process by which the worth or value of something is judged.Evaluation in education can be defined as a continuous process based upon criteria which cooperatively developed (Table 7.1) and concerned with measurement of :The performance of learners.The effectiveness of teachersThe quality of the program
4 Evaluation of whom?of what?StudentsTeachersProgrammes and coursesin relation to what?In relation to educational objectives.
5 Purposes of evaluation (why we evaluate?) Incentive to Learn (motivation)Feedback to studentModification of Learning ActivitiesSelection of studentsSuccess or failureFeedback to teacherSchool public relationsProtection of society (certification of competence)
6 components of evaluation Five basic components of evaluation :audience,purpose,questionsscope, andresourcesTo determine these components, ask the following questions:For what audience is the evaluation being conducted?For what purpose is the evaluation being conducted?What questions will be asked in the evaluation?What is the scope or the evaluation?What resources are available to conduct the evaluation?
7 Different between evaluation &Assessment While assessment and evaluation are highly interrelated and are often used interchangeably as terms, they are not synonymous. The process of assessment is to gather, summarize, interpret, and use data to decide a direction for action. The process of evaluation is to gather, summarize, interpret, and use data to determine the extent to which an action was successful.
8 Cont. Different between evaluation &Assessment The primary differences between these two terms are those of timing and purpose. For example, an education program begins with an assessment of learners' needs. From the perspective of systems theory, assessment data might be called the"input." While the program is being conducted, periodic evaluation lets the educator know whether the program and learners are proceed as planned. After program completion evaluation identifies whether and to what extent the identified needs were met.
9 steps of student evaluation Four steps of student evaluationThe criteria (acceptable level of performance) of the educational objectivesDevelopment and use of measuring instrumentsInterpretation of measurement dataFormulation of judgments and taking of appropriate action
10 Types of Evaluation Five basic types of evaluation include: process, content,outcome,impact, and5. program.These types ranged from the simple (process evaluation) to the complex (impact evaluation).
12 Types of Evaluation 1. Process (Formative) Evaluation The purpose of this evaluation is to make adjustments in an educational activity as soon as they are needed, whether those adjustments be in personnel, materials, facilities learning objectives, or even attitudeAdjustments may need to be made after one class or session before the next is taught , so process evaluation occurs more frequently during and throughout every learning experience than any other type.This ongoing evaluation prevent problems before they occur or identify problems as they arise
13 Types of Evaluation 2. Content Evaluation The purpose of content evaluation is to determine whether learners have acquired the knowledge or skills taught during the learning experience, as taking place immediately after the learning experience to answer the question "To what degree did learners achieve specified objectives?"Examples:- Asking a patient to give a return demonstration immediately after observing it- Asking participants to complete a cognitive test at the completion of a 1-day seminar.Content evaluation as the level is in between process and outcome evaluation levels. In other words, content evaluation can be considered as focusing on how the teaching-learning process affected immediate, short-term outcomes
14 Types of Evaluation 3. Outcome (Summative) Evaluation The purpose of outcome or summative evaluation is to determine the effects or outcomes of teaching efforts. Its intent is to sum what happened as a result of education.Outcome evaluation occurs after teaching has been completed or after a program has been carried out, it is focusing on measuring long-term change that persists after the learning experience.Guiding questions in out- come evaluation include the following:• Was teaching appropriate?• Did the individual(s) learn?• Were behavioural objectives met?
15 Types of Evaluation The purpose of impact evaluation is to:- Determine the relative effects of education on the institution or the community. obtain information that will help decide whether conducting an educational activity is worth its cost.The scope of impact evaluation is broader, more complex, and usually more long term than that of process, content, or outcome evaluationOutcome evaluation would focus on course objective, whereas impact evaluation would focus on course goal.
16 Types of Evaluation 5. Program Evaluation The purpose of total program evaluation is to determine the extent to which all activities for an entire program over a specified period of time meet or exceed goals originally established.Example Guiding question appropriate for a total program evaluation from this perspective might be "To what extent did programs undertaken by faculty members of the nursing college academic departments during the year accomplish annual goals established by the departments?"
17 Types of Evaluation Cont . Program Evaluation The scope of program evaluation is broad, generally focusing on overall goals rather than on specific objectives.It is encompassing all aspects of educational activity (e.g., process, content, outcome, impact) with input from all the participants (e.g., learners, teachers, institutional representatives, community representatives).The time period over which data are collected may extend from several months to 1 or more years, depending on the time frame established for meeting the goals to be evaluated.
18 Evaluation Methodologies Methods of evaluation must be selected according to educational objectives and domains to be evaluated . Below are different evaluation methods for each educational domains .Cognitive DomainWritten testObjective type ( Matching , Multiple choice , True & false , Short answers)Subjective type (Long answer , Simulation)Oral testObservational rating scaleQuestionnaireAttitude DomainDirect observationRating scaleChecklistPsychomotor DomainPractical testsIn real SituationIn simulation condition
19 Qualities of a test Directly related to educational objectives Realistic & practicalConcerned with important & useful mattersComprehensive but briefPrecise & clear