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Assessing Student Learning

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1 Assessing Student Learning
Chapter 14 Assessing Student Learning

2 Chapter 14 Key Points Assessment
Defined as determining if and to what degree a student can demonstrate his/her understanding and ability relative to identified standards of learning (Lambert, 1999) Student must complete some type of performance goal that is evaluated against present criteria Performance should take place in “authentic” settings Several descriptor words used to describe term, including “alternative assessment”, “performance assessment”, “outcome assessment”, “authentic assessment”

3 Chapter 14 Key Points Assessment (cont)
Children Moving uses “alternative assessment” and provides a guide to the design and selection of assessment strategies that match student learning goals Five characteristics distinguish alternative assessment from traditional assessment Lambert (1999) recommends seven steps to design successful alternative assessments

4 Five Characteristics of Alternative Assessments
Differences between Alternative and Traditional Assessment Link between assessment and instruction Student as the primary client Ongoing process Comprised of meaningful tasks Criteria distributed ahead of time

5 Seven Steps for Teachers for Successful Alternative Assessment
Decide on standard or learning goal Decide on the content that will be learned Select and develop the assessment methods and criteria Select appropriate instructional tasks Teach the tasks, focusing on maximum practice and feedback Assess the students (#3) Use the assessment results to help students self-correct, to evaluate student learning, to improve instruction, and to refine learning goals Lambert (1999)

6 Chapter 14 Key Points Assessment (cont)
Should be linked to instructional tasks, E.g. challenges change a task and also serve as performance assessment, allowing children to self assess how they are doing on a particular task E.g. checking for understanding is a mini-cognitive assessment allowing teacher to know in a few seconds if children understand.

7 Chapter 14 Key Points Assessment (cont)
Should match learning goals e.g. from simple to complex, from mastery of basic skills to combination of skills, to using skills in dynamic situations Provide feedback to teacher as well as student Several assessment options available – teachers encouraged to develop their own which are specific to their context

8 Alternative Assessment Options for Physical Education
Teacher observation Exit (or entrance) slips Student journals Homework Peer observation Self-assessment Event tasks Videotaping Student drawings Student displays Portfolios

9 Chapter 14 Key Points Alternative Assessment Options
Teacher Observation Most common form of assessment Generally used to assess psychomotor performance Many tools for recording observational information Example: Figure 14.1

10 Chapter 14 Key Points Alternative Assessment Options (cont)
Exit (or Entrance) Slips Short written pieces Can be done in a few minutes during or at the end of class Designed to assess cognitive and affective goals Example: Figure 14.2

11 Chapter 14 Key Points Alternative Assessment Options (cont)
Student Journals Written records of participation, results, responses, feelings, perceptions/ reflections about what actually happened. Like diaries –students write honestly and freely Designed to assess the affective domain Example: Figure 14.4

12 Chapter 14 Key Points Alternative Assessment Options (cont) Homework
Done outside the physical education class Great for outside reading, keeping personal records or other written work Used to practice psychomotor skills and enhance cognitive understanding Example: Figure 14.7

13 Chapter 14 Key Points Alternative Assessment Options (cont)
Peer Observation Students observing students Partner provides feedback to performer Used to assess competence in skill performance and demonstration of selected critical elements See key points for teachers in the text Example: Figure 14.8

14 Chapter 14 Key Points Alternative Assessment Options (cont)
Self-Assessment Can be used to assess psychomotor, cognitive and affective aspects of student’s work Provides a unique opportunity to assess larger components of a skill or the beginning use of a skill Can be used before, during or at the end of a unit to assess achievement and to get a glimpse of a student’s feelings and attitudes Example: Figures 14.9 and 14.10

15 Chapter 14 Key Points Alternative Assessment Options (cont)
Event Tasks Performance tasks with multiple solutions that cane be completed within a class period or a portion of it. Could be all psychomotor or could also include cognitive aspects Require independent and group working skills Example: Figure (Child’s self-designed game)

16 Chapter 14 Key Points Alternative Assessment Options (cont)
Videotaping Can provide a final product Students can self-analyze performance Allows students to display their knowledge and performance of various critical aspects of a skill Student Drawings Effective assessment measure because students like to draw Options are endless Example: Figure 14.12

17 Chapter 14 Key Points Alternative Assessment Options (cont)
Student Displays Public displays of students’ work Variety of forms such as posters, photography and bulletin boards

18 Chapter 14 Key Points Alternative Assessment Options (cont) Portfolios
Collection of students’ work gathered over time Provide an opportunity for students to share the responsibility for collecting proof of their learning A personal record of the students’ knowledge, goals, performance etc., that reflect the purpose of your physical education program for that child Could include many of the other assessment products Provide a rich resource for reporting to both students and parents 5

19 Chapter 14 Key Points Assessment (cont) Rubrics
Provide guidelines for scoring assessment items enabling teachers and students to judge performance for specific tasks Make learning expectations clear Provide feedback Support the development of skills and understanding. Components are: criteria or essential component to be assessed steps of the quality or rating scale descriptors illustrating each of the steps as related to the criteria

20 Chapter 14 Key Points Assessment (cont)
Alternative assessments can be used effectively with students with disabilities, however rubrics require modifications Reporting Progress: Teachers are required to summarize and report pupil progress Systems that report progress and achievement (not grades) include Hartinger System Lambdin System Metz System Should grades be required, it is recommended to specify what the grades mean and to assess exactly what is specified

21 Chapter 14 Key Points Assessment (cont) Finding the time
Although difficult to find the time, assessment is a critical component of the learning process and cannot be ignored. Tips for minimizing waiting times during assessment Use technology e.g. videotapes, audiotapes and hand-help computers to record student progress information Ask for assistance from classroom teacher or another adult Complete an assessment at one station while rest of class performs various tasks at other stations

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