Presentation on theme: "Definitions of grammar Definiciones de la gramática Sra. Blanco."— Presentation transcript:
Definitions of grammar Definiciones de la gramática Sra. Blanco
Adjectives [adjetivos]. Words to describe nouns: good movie, several issues, one flower. Adverbs [adverbios]. Words to provide information about verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. He speaks well. It's very good. They performed incredibly well.
Articles [artículos]. Definite: the (el, la, los, las, lo); indefinite: a, an (un, una). Conjunctions [conjunciones]. Words that connect two other words or phrases: and, or, however, although y, o, sin embargo, aunque
Conjugation [conjugación]. Verbs may adopt different endings according to the tense (worked) or the person (he works). This process is called inflection or conjugation. In Spanish, a verb is conjugated whenever it is not in its infinitive, participle or gerund forms. Demonstratives [demostrativos]. this, that, these, those Gender [género]. This word is used to indicate whether something is masculine or feminine in Spanish: The gender of el libro is masculine, the gender of la casa is feminine.
Gerund [gerundio] (or present participle). Verb form (-ing) that combines with to be in phrases such as: is sleeping, was studying. (hablando, comiendo, viviendo) In English, the gerund is often used as a noun: I like the book (noun) → I like studying (noun). BUT Spanish uses the infinite in this role: Me gusta el libro → me gusta estudiar
Imperative Mood [modo imperativo]. The form of the verb used for commands: Come! (ven, venga, vengan, venid) Indicative Mood [modo indicativo]. Verb tenses that present actions or occurrences as factual: I lived here. He won't go. Infinitive. The basic form of the verb, as found in the dictionary: to speak (hablar), to eat (comer), to live (vivir). The infinitive is often used as the object of another verb: I hate to fry. Odio freír.
Nouns [sustantivos]. Words to name things or people: book (libro), liberty (libertad), author (autor). In sentences, nouns are generally the subject or the object of a verb: Authors write books. Number [número]. This term is used to indicate whether something is singular or plural: house, casa (singular) houses, casas (plural)
Object [objeto o complemento]. Part of the sentence that undergoes the action expressed by the verb. Examples: She wrote a letter to Pedro. → the letter is the direct object (what did she write?) → Pedro is the indirect object (to whom did she write?) She told him the secret. → the secret is the direct object (what?) → him is the indirect object (to whom?) She took him to a doctor. → him is the direct object (what?, whom?) → the doctor is the indirect object (to whom?)
Person [persona]. In English, I is the first person singular, he/she/it are the third person singular, we is the first person plural, they is the third person plural, you is the second person singular or plural. Phrase [frase]. Any group of words that make sense together: the big city things generally kept in the refrigerator Possessives [posesivos]. Words indicating ownership, such as my (mi), yours (tuyo), our (nuestro), etc.
Prepositions [preposiciones]. Words that convey a sense of position (spatial or conceptual): with (con), to (a, para), in, on, at (en), etc. Pronouns [pronombres]. Words that stand in place of nouns or noun phrases already mentioned:she, it, him, etc. Martha loves her city. She loves it. Reflexive [reflexivo]. A pronoun that indicates actions performed on oneself, in which the subject and the object of the verb are one and the same (me, te, se, nos, os, se): We see ourselves clearly. I washed myself.
Sentence [oración]. A group of words including at least one (conjugated) verb and conveying a complete thought (subject, verb, object): Martha loves the city. Subject [sujeto]Generally, the person or thing that performs the action in a sentence. For example "New York grew rapidly." New York (who grew?) is the subject. Subjunctive Mood [modo subjuntivo]. Verb tenses that indicate non-factual actions or occurrences. In the sentences If I were you, or I insist that he be here, the verb to be is in the subjunctive mood.
Tenses [tiempos]. Forms of the verb that indicate aspects of time, e.g. past, present, future. A perfect tense conveys a completed action: I will have written the letter by tomorrow. An imperfect tense describes ongoing actions: I was studying. Verbs [verbos]. Generally, words that convey actions, such as to go (ir), to work (trabajar). Verbs that may take a direct object are called transitive: - John wrote the letters; he communicated the news to his family. Letters and the news are the direct objects of the transitive verbs to write and to communicate.
Verbs that may not take a direct object are called intransitive: - John works hard and communicates effectively. The verbs to work and to communicate are intransitive in this sentence because it is unnecessary for them to take a direct object.