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Pronoun: takes the place of nouns.
Pronombres Pronoun: takes the place of nouns.
Los tipos de pronombres
Sujeto: hace la acción del verbo. Reflexivo: el sujeto y objeto son iguales. Pronombre de objeto directo: recibe la acción del verbo. Pronombre de objeto indirecto: contesta las preguntas de ¿a quien? ¿para quien? Sintaxis: el mapa de una oración en español. (How do I create a sentence in Spanish?)
Sujeto English Singular Plural 1st I We 2nd You All of you 3rd
He/She/It They español Singular Plural 1st Yo Nosotros 2nd Tú Vosotros* 3rd y 2nd (formal) Él/Ella/Usted Ellos (as)/Uds. *Vosotros is only used in Spain. You will not be tested on conjugations in this form.
Sujeto continuado… The subject performs the action of the verb.
It also determines the conjugation of the verb. In the 1st and 2nd forms of the verb, one does not need to include the subject pronoun because it is already determined by the ending of the verb. Yo como. I eat. Como. I eat. Tu escribes. You (inf.) write. Escribes. You (inf.) write. With other verb forms, it is often desirable to include the subject noun or pronoun. Juan come. Juan eats. Él come. He eats. Juana come. Juana eats. Ella come. She eats. Back to Menu
Los Pronombres Reflexivos
English Singular Plural 1st myself ourselves 2nd yourself yourselves 3rd himself/herself/itself themselves español Singular Plural 1st me nos 2nd te os 3rd y 2nd (formal) se
pronombres reflexivos cont.
The subject both performs and receives the action of the verb. Me levanto. I get myself up. Te escondes. I hide myself. Nos divertimos. We enjoyed ourselves. When the verb is conjugated, the pronoun goes IN FRONT of the verb. Juan se acuesta. Juan puts himself to bed. When using a verb phrase (2 or more verbs in a row), the pronoun attaches to the end of the infinitive form. Necesito acostarme – I need to put myself to bed (go to bed). Back to Menu
Los Pronombres de Objetos Directos
English Singular Plural 1st me us 2nd you (all of) you 3rd him/her/it them español Singular Plural 1st me nos 2nd te os 3rd y 2nd (formal) lo/la los/las
Los Objetos Directos The D.O receives the action of the verb.
Bill hit the ball. The ball receives the action “hit”. The D.O. answers the question “what?” or “whom” with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing. Bill hit the ball. Bill hit what? the ball. Sherry hit Bill. Sherry hit whom? Bill Often we use pronouns to replace the direct object noun. Paul bought the flowers. He gave the flowers to his wife. Paul bought the flowers. He gave them to his wife.
¿Dónde pongo los objetos directos?
The direct object pronoun usually comes immediately before the conjugated verb. Tú lo tienes. You have it. However, when a sentence has a verb phrase with one verb conjugated followed by an infinitive, the pronoun may be attached to the end of the infinitive. Yo lo puedo hacer. OR Yo puedo hacerlo. I can do it. Notice that the direct object must agree in gender and number. It replaces “la pluma” so “la” is the correct direct object pronoun. Juan tiene la pluma. Juan has the pen. Juan la tiene. Juan has it. Back to Menu
Los Pronombres de Objetos Indirectos
English Singular Plural 1st to/for me to/for us 2nd to/for you to/for (all of) you 3rd him/her/it them español Singular Plural 1st me nos 2nd te os 3rd y 2nd (formal) le les
Los objetos indirectos
Indirect object pronouns tell where the direct object is going. I gave the book to Maria. Where is the book going? to Maria. I.O. pronouns also answers the questions “to whom?” and “for whom?” I sing the song for her. for whom? for her. Usually, when there is an indirect object, there will be a direct object. However the direct object is often implied and not written. I write her everyday. I.O. = her D.O = letter (implied)
Indirect and Direct Object Pronouns
Like the D.O. the indirect object pronoun goes before the conjugated verb or attached to the infinitive. Me escribes. You write me. When both D.O. and I.O are in the same sentence, the I.O goes first and then the D.O. He gave it to me. Él me lo dio. He wants to give it to me. Él quiere darmelo. Back to Menu
Syntax: mapping the Spanish sentence.
In an independent clause (a normal sentence), there is a correct order of grammatical pieces. I sing it (la canción) for you. Yo te la canto. Subj. I.O. D.O. Verb. When the direct object and indirect object both start with l, change the first pronoun to “se” I sing it for them. Yo les la canto. Yo se la canto. Back to Menu
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