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Ch. 21 ~ Baking Section 1 Ingredients & Techniques

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1 Ch. 21 ~ Baking Section 1 Ingredients & Techniques
Objectives: Identify basic ingredients used in baking Learn how to prepare pans for baking Find additions to quick breads to increase nutritional value

2 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Ingredient Basics Flour, liquid, leavening agents, fat, sweeteners, eggs, and flavoring = common ingredients Baked goods generally nutritious (many high in fat, sugar, & calories) Flour = found in nearly every baked product Makes up most of a baked products structure Gluten – protein that affects the texture of a baked product; helps determine how the product will rise

3 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Types of FLOUR All purpose Most popular in American kitchens Gives good results for most products Bread flour Highest gluten content Gives bread strong structure Cake flour Less gluten than other flours Gives cakes a tender structure Whole grain flour Weaker gluten than all purpose flour Products made with whole grain rise less Wheat, rye, cornmeal are whole-grain flours Can be combined with all purpose Whole grain flours need to be stirred not sifted Need to be stored in refrigerator to keep them fresh b/c they contain some fat

4 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Liquid Plays a role in the physical and chemical changes that occur in a product during baking Water and milk = most common Milk adds flavor & nutrients/helps baked goods brown better Using fat free milk in a recipe reduces fat Buttermilk adds a tangy flavor to baked foods

5 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Leavening Agents Substance that triggers a chemical action causing baked product to rise Make most products less compact/softer texture Air – trapped in mixtures as they are beaten; air expands causing product to rise Steam – used in products that contain a lot of water; water turns into heat causing product to rise Yeast – microorganism that produces carbon dioxide gas as it grows; needs food (flour or sugar), liquid, warm temperature to grow; several forms available TBD Baking Soda – used when recipe calls for buttermilk, yogurt, sour milk, or other acidic liquid Baking Powder – made of baking soda and a powdered acid such as cream of tartar

6 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Fat Contributes to calories but adds richness, flavor and tenderness Can be solid or liquid Are not easily substituted Butter or shortening = regular margarine (not soft, whipped, or liquid) Any cooking oil can be used in baking (mildly flavored) Fats play an important role = can’t be eliminated; however can be reduced with other flavorful ingredients Applesauce or pureed dried fruits are common substitues Eggs Add flavor, nutrients, richness, and color Help form the structure of baked products Add air to the mixture when beaten

7 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Sweeteners Sugar is the most commonly used Adds tenderness, sweetness, & flavor Helps crusts brown Granulated white and brown sugar are used in many recipes Other sweeteners include: honey, corn syrup, molasses, & powdered sugar Flavorings Fruits, veggies, nuts = add flavor, texture, and nutrients Herbs, spices, extracts = add flavor Extracts are flavorings in liquid form Vanilla and Almond are VERY common

8 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Combining Ingredients Success of a baked product = ingredients used and order of combination Following recipe instructions VERY important for batters and doughs to turn out 4 kinds of batters/doughs Pour batters Drop batters Soft doughs Stiff doughs

9 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Pour Batters Thin enough to pour; used to make cakes, pancakes, and waffles Drop Batters Thick; usually spooned into pans; used to make some quick breads and cookies Soft Doughs Soft and sticky; rolled biscuits, yeast breads, rolls, and some cookies start with soft doughs Stiff Doughs Firm to the touch; easy to work with & cut, form the basis for piecrust and some cookies

10 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Methods of Mixing Several basic methods Use method called for in recipe instructions Unless recipe directs otherwise, ingredients should be at room temperature before mixing Kneading – working the dough with your hands to thoroughly mix ingredients and develop gluten

11 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Preparing to Bake Use the size/type of baking pan suggested in recipe Using light colored metal pans are best Lower the temp. recommended (by about 10 degrees) if using glass pans; glass retains more heat than metal Dark pans also retain more heat than light ones

12 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Pan Preparation If properly prepared, products will easily remove from pan at end of baking Grease & Flour Lightly grease pan with fat and dust with flour Use wax paper or thick paper towel to spread fat Sprinkle flour in pan and tilt at different angles to spread evenly Turn pan upside down over sink and tap gently to remove excess flour Cooking Spray Easiest method – may not work with all products Line with Paper Cut cooking parchment paper the same shape and size of pan bottom Grease the pan and line the bottom with parchment paper

13 Ingredients & Techniques for Baking
Removing Baked Products from Pans Some must be removed immediately Some need to cool for a few minutes or until completely cool in the pans; follow recipe instructions Use cooling racks so baked goods will cool faster and stay crisp (if cooled on a solid surface, product may become soggy) Storing Baked Products If filled with cream filling or frosting, should be refrigerated Store at room temperature if they will be eaten within 3 days

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