2 Intro Activity…With your table, match the basic ingredients used in baking with their characteristics.When finished I will check groups and we will review!
3 Ingredient Basics Common ingredients in all baking: Flour-protein (gluten) and starch in flour gives most of the structureLiquid- Usually water or milkLeavening agents- causes product to riseFats- adds tenderness, richness and flavorSweeteners-provides sweetness and flavor, makes product tender, and helps crust brownEggs- help form the structure and bindsFlavoring- extract flavors, spices, herb, vegetables, nuts
4 Leavening AgentsLeavening agent is a substance that triggers a chemical action causing a baked product to riseTypes of leavening agents:Air: trapped air in mixture expands when the product is heated.Ex: Angel food is mainly leavened by beaten egg whitesSteam: As a product bakes, temperature of the water rises and steam is formed. The steam expands which causes product to rise. Ex: Cream puffs
5 Leavening Agents (cont.) Yeast: is an alive microorganism that produces carbon dioxide gas as it grows.Yeast requires food, liquid and warm temperatures in order to act as a leavening agent
6 Leavening Agents (cont.) Baking soda: leavening agent used with acidic liquids, such as buttermilk, yogurt or sour milk.Baking soda produces carbon dioxide gas when activated by the acidic liquid – which causes a food to expand and RISE!Baking powder: Made of baking soda and a powered acid (ex: cream of tarter).Used in recipes with no acid part because it already contains the acid.
7 Batters and DoughThe amount of liquid in relation to the amount of flour determines whether a mixture is a batter or a dough.A batter will have more liquid than dough.
8 Batters and Dough's Match-Up! With your table, match the type of batter with the definition and a set of example pictures.When finished I will come to check to see if you paired them correctly and we will review!
9 Batters and Dough's Four kinds of batter and dough: Pour batter: thin enough to pour in a steady stream. Ex: Cakes, pancakes, waffles2. Drop batter: are thick and are usually spooned into pans. Ex: Cookies and some quick breads3. Soft dough: are soft and sticky but can be touched and handled. Ex: rolled biscuits, yeast breads and rolls, and some cookies start with soft dough4. Stiff dough: are firm to the touch, easy to work with and cut. Ex: Piecrust and some cookiesFlapjacks by Alton Brown!
10 Quick BreadsQuick breads are quick and easy to make. They don’t require kneading and usually use baking powder as a leavening agent.High in carbohydrates, protein, B vitamins and iron. Some quick breads can be high in fat.Examples of quick breads are muffins,biscuits, pancakes, corn bread,and fruit breads
11 Muffin Method Muffin method: Do not over mix Mixture should be lumpy Mix all dry ingredients in one bowl and make a well in the center.Mix all liquid ingredients in separate bowl and then pour them in the dry ingredient bowl.Do not over mixMixture should be lumpyA properly mixed muffin should have a rounded, pebbly top
12 Loaf BreadsMany quick loaf breads are mixed in the same manner as muffins.Usually baked in greased loaf pans.If bread contains fruits or nuts, the bottom of the pan should be lined with parchment paper.
13 BiscuitsBiscuits are delicate, have a crisp crust, and peels apart in tender layers.2 kinds of biscuits:Rolled- rolling out dough ½ inch thick and cutting with a biscuit cutter. If you do not have a biscuit cutter, use the rim of a water glass.Dropped- dough is dropped with spoon. These contain more liquid and are too sticky to roll.- Both are made using the pastry and biscuit method of mixing.
14 Pastry and Biscuit Methods In the pastry and biscuit method the fat is cut-in to the flour.To cut in means to mix solid fat and flour using a pastry blender or 2 knives in a cutting direction.
15 Troubleshooting Quick Breads What HappenedWhy It HappenedBread caved inRose too fast = too much leaveningToo dryBaked too longNot enough fat or liquidUnderbaked in spotsOven not hot enoughOven heats unevenlyToo denseBatter/dough overmixedTough texture
17 About Yeast Single celled, microscopic plant. When you add sugar to yeast, it reacts to the bacteria and creates carbon dioxide. This leavens the baked product.Water mixed with yeast MUST be between 110 and 125 degrees in order to keep the yeast alive.Available in three forms:Active dry (what we use)- Compressed (very perishable)- Fast rising yeast (rises twice as fast)
18 Yeast and KneadingAfter forming the dough for yeast breads, you MUST knead it!!!!Almost all of the gluten forms during the kneading stage.It is important to not add too much extra flour while kneading. This will make the dough far too stiff.
19 Yeast and Fermentation After you knead the dough, what do you do???When you let it rest in a warm place, the yeast acts upon the sugar and the carbon dioxide causes the bread to rise. This is called FERMENTATION!The bread should at least double in size during fermentation
20 Punching Down!When the dough has risen all the way and has doubled in size, you have to punch it down to release some of the carbon dioxide.Some doughs require a second rising period.
22 CookiesCookies vary in texture, shapes, and sizes. There are six basic kinds of cookies:1. Bar Cookies: Are baked in square or rectangular pans and then cut into bars, squares or diamonds. Textures vary from cakelike to chewy. Ex: Brownies2. Drop cookies: Made from soft dough that is dropped from teaspoon onto cookie sheet.Ex: Chocolate chip cookies
23 Cookies continued3. Rolled cookies: Also called cut-out cookies. Are made from stiff dough that is rolled out and cut out. Ex: Sugar cookies 4. Molded cookies: Are formed by shaping the dough by hand into balls. Can be rolled in nuts or can be flatten with a fork before baking. Ex: Peanut butter cookies
24 Cookies continued 5. Pressed cookies: Are made by pushing dough through a cookiepress, which can create a varietyof shapes. Ex: Spritz cookies6. Sliced cookies: Also called refrigerator cookies. They are made by forming a soft dough into a long roll and refrigerating it. When roll is chilled and firm, cookies are sliced and baked
25 Baking Tips Bake in center of the oven for even cooking Drop cookies must be 2” apart to avoid running togetherGrease pan if necessary or use parchment paperCool on cooling rack to avoid over baking. If you cover the cooling rack with parchment paper, the cookies will not fall through the rack.