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Ingredients and Techniques for Baking

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Presentation on theme: "Ingredients and Techniques for Baking"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ingredients and Techniques for Baking

2 Flour Gives structure to baked products.
Gluten is the protein in flour which gives strength and elasticity to batters and doughs. Use the correct type of flour for baking. Not all recipes require the flour to be sifted. How It's Made Flour - YouTube

3 Types of Flour All-purpose flour-used for all general baking. Made of a blend of hard and soft wheat. Unbleached Flour-flour that has not been bleached.

4 Types of Flour Bread Flour-has more gluten than all-purpose flour. Used for making yeast breads and rolls. Used in bread machines. Cake Flour-has less gluten that all-purpose flour. Made from soft winter wheat. Used for making cakes and baked products with delicate textures. You can substitute all-purpose flour for cake flour, use 1 cup minus 2 Tablespoons of all-purpose flour.

5 Types of Flour Instant Blending Flour-flour that has been specially treated to blend easily with liquids. Used for sauces and gravies. Whole Wheat Flour-made by milling the entire kernel of wheat. Must be refrigerated if not used within a few weeks.

6 Types of Flour Self-Rising Flour-all-purpose flour with baking powder and salt added. You can substitute self-rising flour in recipes that have all-purpose flour, baking powder and salt. If you do not have self-rising flour, you can substitute the following:For each cup of self-rising flour use 1 cup all-purpose flour, 1 ½ tsp. Baking powder and ½ tsp. Salt.

7 Leavening Agents Leavening Agents produce gases in batters and doughs that make baked products rise. There are several types of leavening agents: Air Steam Chemical Leavening Agents Yeast

8 Air Air is trapped in mixtures during beating and stirring.
Some products are leavened totally by air. Example: Angel Food Cake

9 Steam Steam is produced in products that contain a high water content.
The high temperatures used in baking will cause steam Some products are leavened by steam Example- Cream Puffs

10 Chemical Leavening Agents
Baking Soda Should be used with an acidic ingredient. Buttermilk Molasses Brown Sugar Vinegar Honey Applesauce Citrus Juice

11 Chemical Leavening Agents
Baking Powder Contains a dry acid, baking soda and cornstarch. Most are double-acting. They release carbon dioxide when they are moistened and some when they are heated.

12 Yeast Yeast A microscopic, single-celled plant that produces carbon dioxide gas as it grows. It needs food, liquid, and warm temperatures to grow. Examples: Pizza, Doughnuts, Cinnamon Rolls.

13 Liquids Hydrate the protein and starch in the flour.
Moisten ingredients Serve as leavening when they are converted to steam during baking. Examples: Water, milk, buttermilk, fruit juices.

14 Fats Help make baked products tender –tenderizes the gluten.
Coats the flour particles. Helps trap air which aids in leavening. Examples-oil, shortening, butter, margarine.

15 Eggs Helps incorporate air into baked products when you beat them.
Add color and contributes structure. Helps give dough elasticity and structure.

16 Sweeteners Gives sweetness to baked products.
Helps tenderize and helps the crust to brown. In yeast breads, serves as food for the yeast. Examples-sugar, brown sugar, honey, molasses, corn syrup, confectioner’s sugar (powdered sugar)

17 Salt Adds flavor to many baked products.
Regulates the action of yeast in baked products.

18 Other Ingredients Flavorings are not essential ingredients but they help make baked products special. Spices Extracts Nuts Fruits

19 Types of Mixtures Pour Batters
Are thin enough to pour in a steady stream. Examples Cakes Pancakes waffles

20 Types of Mixtures Drop Batters
Are thick, and are usually spooned into pans. Examples Muffins Red Lobster

21 Types of Mixtures Soft Dough
Are soft and sticky, but can be touched and handled. Examples Biscuits Yeast dough

22 Types of Mixtures Stiff dough Are firm to the touch. Example Pie Crust

23 Baking Techniques Use the size and type of pan specified in the recipe. The cooking time will need to be increased for larger pans and decreased for smaller pans. Most recipes are developed for light-color metal pans. If you used dark, metal pans lower the oven temperature by 25° Grease and flour means to lightly grease a pan and dust it with flour. Cooking spray is an easy method of pan preparation, but it may not work with all products. Lining a pan with paper requires parchment paper.

24 Baking Techniques It is important to remember that ingredients are correct. Do not change ingredients amounts or the product will not turn out. (You can still double and half) It is important to preheat the oven so that the rising process occurs properly and the products do not overcook.

25 Quick Breads

26 Quick Breads Quick Breads are quick and easy to make.
Most contain basically the same ingredients. All contain gluten, which is formed when the flour is combined with the liquid ingredients and the mixture is stirred or kneaded. If the mixture is mixed or handled too much, the gluten will overdevelop.

27 Quick Bread Examples Pita Bread Cornbread Tortillas Crepes

28 Examples of Non-Quick Breads
Croissants Loaf bread French bread bagels English muffins Sourdough bread

29 Muffins The muffin method- to prepare muffins, waffles, pancakes, popovers and some coffee cakes.

30 Muffin Method 1. Combine dry ingredients in a bowl. Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients.

31 Muffin Method 2. Combine beaten eggs with milk and melted fat (butter). Add the liquid mixture all at once to the dry mixture and stir the batter just until moistened.

32 Characteristics of Muffins
A high quality muffin has a thin, evenly browned crust. The texture is uniform and the crumb is tender and light. *ADD TO THE NOTES

33 Characteristics of Muffins
An undermixed muffin has a low volume and a coarse crumb. An overmixed muffin has a peaked top with tunnels on the inside.

34 How to Make Pancakes Kitchen Basics - How to Make Pancakes Video –

35 Biscuits Biscuits have a tender, but crisp crust.
There are two kinds of biscuits: rolled and dropped. The biscuit method is used to prepare biscuits. Handle the dough as little as possible. Not all biscuits need to be rolled out. Some biscuits have more liquid and need to be dropped onto the pan or can be used as a dumpling in a stew.

36 Types of Biscuits Rolled biscuits are rolled out to an even thickness and cut out with a biscuit cutter. Drop biscuits contain more liquid than rolled biscuits. This created a batter that is too sticky to handle but which can be dropped from a spoon

37 Biscuit Method Sift together the dry ingredients into a mixing bowl.
Using a pastry blender, cut the fat into the dry ingredients until the particles are the size of coarse crumbs.

38 Biscuit Method 3. Add the liquid all at once, and stir until the dough forms a ball.

39 Biscuit Method 4. Turn the dough onto a lightly floured surface and gently knead 8-10 times. 5. Roll into a circle and cut with a biscuit cutter.

40 Characteristics of High Quality Quick Breads
Biscuits Muffins Pancakes Tender Light, Fluffy Lightly browned top Lightly brown No tunnels or peaks No clumps Flaky Moist Fluffy and light Pleasing flavor

41 How to Make Biscuits

42 How to Make Pizza Crust Master Pizza Dough - YouTube#at=26

No, some biscuits have more liquid and need to be dropped onto the pan or can be used as a dumpling in a soup or stew.

It is important to preheat the oven so that the rising process occurs properly and the products to not overcook.

Kneading means to push and fold over with your hands to smooth and elasticize dough

A leavening agent causes a product to rise. Examples: Baking powder Baking soda Yeast

Fruits Nuts Spices Extracts Cheeses

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