2 What is a verb?A Verb is a word or a phrase that expresses an action or state of being.A verb is one of the most important part of the sentence.
3 Kinds of VerbsVerbs can be classified in many different ways. We will distinguish different types of verbs according to the following aspects:according to the meaning and function: lexical, linking or auxiliaryaccording to the number of objects it requires: intransitive or transitiveaccording to the form: finite or non-finite
4 LEXICAL VERBS arrive, see, walk, change, contain They are verbs that have meaning on their own.They are not dependent on another verb.They refer to situations types of different kinds ( events, actions, processes or states)arrive, see, walk, change, contain
5 There are thousands of main verbs and we can further break them down into the following classifications:Transitive and Intransitive VerbsLinking VerbsDynamic and Static VerbsRegular and Irregular VerbsFinite and non-finite verbs
6 TRANSITIVE VERBSA transitive verb always has a noun that receives the action of the verb.This noun is called the direct object.The verb usually expresses some kind of physical or mental action that is transmitted from the subject to the object.
7 EXAMPLE: Laura raises her hand. I saw an elephant. We are watching TV. (The verb is raises. Her hand is an object receiving the verb’s action.Therefore, raises is a transitive verb.)I saw an elephant.We are watching TV.He speaks English.
8 Transitive verbs sometimes have indirect objects, which name the object to whom or for whom the action was done.EXAMPLE: Jane gave Becky the pencil.(The verb is gave. The direct object is the pencil. [What did he give? the pencil].The indirect object is Becky. [To whom did he give it? to Becky.])
9 INTRANSITIVE VERBSAn intransitive verb NEVER has a direct or indirect object.Although an intransitive verb may be followed by an adverb or adverbial phrase, there is no object to receive its action.
10 EXAMPLE:Laura rises slowly from her seat.(The verb is the word, rises. The words, slowly from her seat, modify the verb. But there is no object that receives the action.)He has arrived.John goes to school.She speaks fast.
11 Linking verbs A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself. It must be followed by a complement to complete its meaning.It "links" the subject to what is said about the subject.
12 Usually, a linking verb shows equality (=) or a change to a different state or place (>). Linking verbs are usyally intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs).The complement to a linking verb may be a noun or an adjective.
13 The main linking verb is the verb TO BE Other linking verbs: BECOME, REMAIN, SEEM, LOOK, APPEAR, FEEL, SOUND, TASTE, COST, WEIGH, TOTAL , EQUAL
14 Jason became a business major. EXAMPLES:Jason became a business major.(The verb, became, links the subject, Jason, to its complement, a business major.)Lisa is in love with Jason.(The verb, is, links the subject, Lisa, to the subject complement, in love with Jason, which describes Lisa.)
15 Deon suddenly appeared. LINKING:Libby appeared happy.(Appeared links Libby to the subject complement, happy.)ACTION:Deon suddenly appeared.(Here, appeared is an intransitive action verb.)
26 STATIVE VERBS IN THE CONTINUOUS FORM They can be used in the continous form but the meaning changes.HAVEAction:“He’s having a shower” (=taking)State: “He has a house in London”
27 THINK“He thinks Obama will win the elections”(opinion = state)“what are you thinking now?” (action)
28 SEEAction: “I’m seeing my dentist next Tuesday” (=have an appointment with)State: “ I see what you mean” (=understand)
29 Regular and Irregular Verbs REGULAR verbs are formed by adding –ED or –D to the base :work worked live -lived rain rained love -loved start started like -liked
30 IRREGULAR VERBS do not follow the rules of the regular verbs IRREGULAR VERBS do not follow the rules of the regular verbs. They do not add ED, they CHANGE.become became becomego went gonecost cost costSpeak spoke spoken
32 All verbs have finite and non-finite forms. FINITE VERBS are verbs that are inflected fortense, mood, person and number.Example:Sean COMES from Ireland.COMES:Tense: simple presentPerson: 3rd person singularMood: indicative moodVerbs which have the imperative, the simple past tense or the simple present tense are called FINITE verbs
33 THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE THE IMPERATIVEIt has only one form, which is the same as the BASE form of a verb.Please be quiet.Come here.Go out.THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSEThe simple present tense of BE has three forms (am, is, are). The simple present tense of every full verb except Be has two forms.This is his photograph.They work in a hospital.Mary finishes work at 9.
34 THE SIMPLE PAST TENSEThe simple past tense of BE has two forms, WAS, WERE.The simple past tense of every verb except BE has one form only.He was my friend.They worked in a hospital.She wrote a poem.
35 Non-finite Verbs A non-finite verb (or a verbal) is a verb form that is not limited by a subject; and moregenerally, it is not fully inflected by categories.The infinitive, present and past participles arethe non-finite verbs.
36 The boys were waiting for the headmaster to come in. THE INFINITIVEThe boys were waiting for the headmasterto come in.Everyone could see that.The infinitive, too, has the same form as the base, although it is often preceded by the INFINITIVE MARKER, to, as in to come. In could see the infinitive is BARE.
37 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE (OR –ING PARTICLE): …waiting for the headmaster to come in.The boys saw the teacher sleeping.The present participle is formed, in every case, by adding -ing, to the base.
38 THE PAST PARTICIPLE OR (-ED PARTICLE) I have just telephoned George Lamb.Called by their parents the boys travelled to England.With regular verbs, and a number of irregular ones as well, the past participle has the same form as the past tense.
39 FINITE AND NON-FINITE VERB PHRASES He smokes heavily.He is working.He had been offended before.NON-FINITE VERB PHRASESTo smoke like that must be dangerous.I found him working.Having been offended before, he was sensitive.(All verb phrases beginning with a modal are finite)You must be able to speak English fluently.Perhaps I could see you tomorrow.