Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "VERBS."— Presentation transcript:


2 What is a verb? A Verb is a word or a phrase that expresses an action or state of being. A verb is one of the most important part of the sentence.

3 Kinds of Verbs Verbs can be classified in many different ways. We will distinguish different types of verbs according to the following aspects: according to the meaning and function: lexical, linking or auxiliary according to the number of objects it requires: intransitive or transitive according to the form: finite or non-finite

4 LEXICAL VERBS arrive, see, walk, change, contain
They are verbs that have meaning on their own. They are not dependent on another verb. They refer to situations types of different kinds ( events, actions, processes or states) arrive, see, walk, change, contain

5 There are thousands of main verbs and we can further break them down into the following classifications: Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Linking Verbs Dynamic and Static Verbs Regular and Irregular Verbs Finite and non-finite verbs

6 TRANSITIVE VERBS A transitive verb always has a noun that receives the action of the verb. This noun is called the direct object. The verb usually expresses some kind of physical or mental action that is transmitted from the subject to the object.

7 EXAMPLE: Laura raises her hand. I saw an elephant. We are watching TV.
(The verb is raises. Her hand is an object receiving the verb’s action. Therefore, raises is a transitive verb.) I saw an elephant. We are watching TV. He speaks English.

8 Transitive verbs sometimes have indirect objects, which name the object to whom or for whom the action was done. EXAMPLE: Jane gave Becky the pencil. (The verb is gave. The direct object is the pencil. [What did he give? the pencil]. The indirect object is Becky. [To whom did he give it? to Becky.])

9 INTRANSITIVE VERBS An intransitive verb NEVER has a direct or indirect object. Although an intransitive verb may be followed by an adverb or adverbial phrase, there is no object to receive its action.

10 EXAMPLE: Laura rises slowly from her seat. (The verb is the word, rises. The words, slowly from her seat, modify the verb. But there is no object that receives the action.) He has arrived. John goes to school. She speaks fast.

11 Linking verbs A linking verb does not have much meaning in itself.
It must be followed by a complement to complete its meaning. It "links" the subject to what is said about the subject.

12 Usually, a linking verb shows equality (=) or a change to a different state or place (>).
Linking verbs are usyally intransitive (but not all intransitive verbs are linking verbs). The complement to a linking verb may be a noun or an adjective.

13 The main linking verb is the verb TO BE

14 Jason became a business major.
EXAMPLES: Jason became a business major. (The verb, became, links the subject, Jason, to its complement, a business major.) Lisa is in love with Jason. (The verb, is, links the subject, Lisa, to the subject complement, in love with Jason, which describes Lisa.)

15 Deon suddenly appeared.
LINKING: Libby appeared happy. (Appeared links Libby to the subject complement, happy.) ACTION: Deon suddenly appeared. (Here, appeared is an intransitive action verb.)


17 DYNAMIC VERBS They refer to actions or to changing situations.

18 They can be used in continuous or progressive as well as in simple
forms PROGRESSIVE FORMS SIMPLE FORMS I’m looking at you. I often look at you. I·m listening to music. I often listen to music.

19 STATIVE VERBS They describe state (non-action, a situation).
They cannot normally be used with continuous tenses (though some of them can be used with continuous tenses with a change in meaning).

20 1. VERBS OF THE SENSES Appear Hear Look like See Taste

21 2. VERBS OF THINKING Agree Believe Forget Know Think Understand

22 3. VERBS OF THE FEELINGS Like Hate Love Prefer Want Wish

23 4. VERBS OF POSSESSION Belong to Contain Have Own

24 5. VERBS OF BEING Be Exist

25 6. OTHER VERBS Cost Depend on Mean Need

They can be used in the continous form but the meaning changes. HAVE Action: “He’s having a shower” (=taking) State: “He has a house in London”

27 THINK “He thinks Obama will win the elections” (opinion = state) “what are you thinking now?” (action)

28 SEE Action: “I’m seeing my dentist next Tuesday” (=have an appointment with) State: “ I see what you mean” (=understand)

29 Regular and Irregular Verbs
REGULAR verbs are formed by adding –ED or –D to the base : work  worked       live  -lived   rain   rained           love -loved                start  started like  -liked

30 IRREGULAR VERBS do not follow the rules of the regular verbs
IRREGULAR VERBS do not follow the rules of the regular verbs. They do not add ED, they CHANGE. become became become go went gone cost cost cost Speak spoke spoken

31 Finite and Non-finite verbs

32 All verbs have finite and non-finite forms.
FINITE VERBS are verbs that are inflected for tense, mood, person and number. Example: Sean COMES from Ireland. COMES: Tense: simple present Person: 3rd person singular Mood: indicative mood Verbs which have the imperative, the simple past tense or the simple present tense are called FINITE verbs

THE IMPERATIVE It has only one form, which is the same as the BASE form of a verb. Please be quiet. Come here. Go out. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE The simple present tense of BE has three forms (am, is, are). The simple present tense of every full verb except Be has two forms. This is his photograph. They work in a hospital. Mary finishes work at 9.

34 THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE The simple past tense of BE has two forms, WAS, WERE. The simple past tense of every verb except BE has one form only. He was my friend. They worked in a hospital. She wrote a poem.

35 Non-finite Verbs A non-finite verb (or a verbal) is a verb form
that is not limited by a subject; and more generally, it is not fully inflected by categories. The infinitive, present and past participles are the non-finite verbs.

36 The boys were waiting for the headmaster to come in.
THE INFINITIVE The boys were waiting for the headmaster to come in. Everyone could see that. The infinitive, too, has the same form as the base, although it is often preceded by the INFINITIVE MARKER, to, as in to come. In could see the infinitive is BARE.

…waiting for the headmaster to come in. The boys saw the teacher sleeping. The present participle is formed, in every case, by adding -ing, to the base.

I have just telephoned George Lamb. Called by their parents the boys travelled to England. With regular verbs, and a number of irregular ones as well, the past participle has the same form as the past tense.

He smokes heavily. He is working. He had been offended before. NON-FINITE VERB PHRASES To smoke like that must be dangerous. I found him working. Having been offended before, he was sensitive. (All verb phrases beginning with a modal are finite) You must be able to speak English fluently. Perhaps I could see you tomorrow.

Download ppt "VERBS."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google