The word complement comes from the Latin word complere which means “to fill up or complete”. Complements COMPLETE the meaning of a verb.
A complement can be a noun, a pronoun, OR an adjective.
An adverb is NEVER a complement. ADVERB – The package is here. [Here is an adverb that modifies the verb by telling WHERE the package is.] COMPLEMENT – The package is heavy. [Heavy is an adjective that makes the sentence a COMPLETE thought.]
A complement is never in a prepositional phrase. PREP. PHRASE – Erin is painting in the garage. (The prep. phrase in the garage is an adverb phrase telling where Erin is painting.) COMPLEMENT – Erin is painting her room. (The noun room completes the phrase by telling what she is painting.)
Direct Object: a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb; must come after an action verb Ex: I met Dr. Mason. (I met whom? I met Dr. Mason. Dr. Mason receives the action of the verb met.) Try: Please buy fruit, bread and milk. D.O. =______________________________
Indirect Object: a noun, pronoun, or word group that sometimes appears in sentences containing direct objects; tells to whom or to what, or for whom or for what, the action of the verb is done Ex: The waiter gave her the bill. (The pronoun her is the indirect object of the verb gave. It answers the questions “To whom did the waiter give the bill?) Try: Did she tip him five dollars? I.O. = ___________________________________
Predicate Nominative: a word or word group in the predicate that identifies the subject; a noun or pronoun that is connected to the subject by a linking verb [Common linking verbs: appear, be, become, grow, remain, smell, stay, be, feel, look, seem, sound, taste] Ex: A dictionary is a valuable tool. (Tool is a predicate nominative that identifies the subject dictionary.) Try: The discoverers of radium were Pierre Curie and Marie Curie. P.N.= ___________________
Am, are, is, was, were, and, be Forms of be, forms of be Taste, smell, sound, seem, look, feel, say Become, grow, appear, remain
Predicate Adjective: an adjective that is in the predicate and describes the subject; connected to the subject by a linking verb Ex: Cold milk tastes good on a hot day. (Good is a predicate adjective that describes the subject milk.) Try: How kind you are! P.A. = __________________________________
Direct Object: After action verb Noun or pronoun Answers Who? Or What? Indirect Object: After action verb, before Direct Object Noun or pronoun Answers To whom? Or To what?
Predicate Nominative: After linking verb Noun or pronoun Equal to the subject Predicate adjective: After linking verb adjective Describes the subject
Find Subj. & Verb Action Verb Are there any Nouns or Pron. after V? No? No D.O. Yes? Does it answer Whom? What? = D.O. To whom or what? For whom or what? = I.O. Linking Verb What is the subject equal to? Noun = PN Adj.=PA
Transitive verbs – have direct objects Intransitive verbs – have NO direct objects
Find Subj. & Verb Action Verb Are there any Nouns or Pron. after V? No? No D.O. Yes? Does it answer Whom? What? = D.O. To whom or what? For whom or what? = I.O. Linking Verb What is the subject equal to? Noun = PN Adj.=PA Transitive Intransitive