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Child Rearing in Families and Communities Chapter 4.

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Presentation on theme: "Child Rearing in Families and Communities Chapter 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Rearing in Families and Communities Chapter 4

2 What Can We Deduce About Child Rearing Practices Government Social Policies –Elderly Retirement Mortality/Survival Outcomes –Nutrition behaviors Siblings & Extended Family –Number of Children –Family Organization Early Life Experiences Community Support Systems Cultural Investigation of Variable Operationalization

3 Government Social Policies China –Before 1949, high death rate and high birth rate—yielding slow growth rate –In 1949, Gov’t efforts to eliminate disease and encourage conception by restricting birth control and abortion –In 1953, disease under control. Population increased to 50 million –In 1956, Chinese economists proposed implementation of birth control and population planning to avoid strains on standard of living, education system, and national reconstruction goals –In 1957, policy reversal toward increasing the population until 1964 when gov’t noted concerns with extreme population growth –In late 1970’s, single-child policy leading to 90% of 9 year old children being only children »

4 Government Social Policies Mexico –Prior policies encouraged rapid growth because it was believed that sparse populations allowed U.S. to occupy Mexican territories (land from California to Texas) –Within one generation, the average number of births has dropped from 7 to 2.5 children (slightly above world-wide rates). Due in part to policy changes in 1974 when Mexican demographers purported serious concerns related to over population

5 What happens to the family in the midst of such policy changes? Families calibrate and reorganize Priorities of the families begin to change Values begin to shift In many cultures, elderly retirement is a function of number of children to care for them (mostly agrarian)

6 Siblings & Extended Family –Number of Children In some cultures, families have many children due to high mortality rates Agrarian areas where there is an abundance of resources and population is sparse –Family Organization While most cultures denote the responsibility of child rearing as primarily to women, men play a greater role toward care during infancy in many cultures

7 Early Life Experiences Rooted in Culture “There are no children here” –The sentiments of a single mother of several small children who face the task of surviving in inner city America. –Perceptions of safety and locus of control –Perceptions of life-span and risk-taking outcomes

8 Robert LeVine’s there-level hierarchy of parental child-rearing goals In communities with high infant/child mortality, parents must first consider the child’s physical survival and health Parental priorities involving preparing children to maintain themselves economically in maturity Parents can devote more energy to considering each child’s potential to maximize other cultural values (i.e., prestige, religious piety, intellectual achievement, personal satisfaction, and self- realization) –Once first and second conditions are met

9 Infant-Caregiver Attachment In some cultures, it is appropriate to abandon children if they are struggling to survive and it is perceived hopeless or are unhealthy

10 Infants’ Security of Attachment Attachment as a function of “ the Strange Situation” –Secure –Anxious/resistent High distress while the caregiver is absent, and when the caregiver attempts to comfort the infant after separation, the infant is not easily soothed –Anxious/avoidant Low distress while the caregiver is away but avoidance of the caregiver upon reunion, turning or looking away

11 Infants’ Security of Attachment Attachment as a function of “ the Strange Situation” –Secure –Anxious/resistent Israel, Japan –Children typically are not left alone with strangers during these cultures, contrary to African American cultures where this is customary –Anxious/avoidant Western European countries (north Germany) –Promote early independence

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