3 Factors Contributing to Population Explosion Agricultural advancesAdvances in medicineIndustrial revolution
4 Reasons for exponential growth of human population Increased food supplyImprovements in medical and public health and technologyImprovements in sanitation and personal hygieneSafer water supplies
5 Thomas MalthusStudied the decline of living conditions in 19th century EnglandBlamed this decline on:Too many childrenInability of resources to replenish at levels with increased populationIrresponsibility of lower classProposed regulating family size of lower class to limit it to a level they could support
6 Malthus continuedHe said “positive checks” like food shortages and disease kept population at appropriate levelsHe said population growth was exponential but food production could not keep growing exponentially.As of today, he was wrong due to GM foods.
7 Current Stats World Population: 6.6 billion people U.S. Population: 295 million peopleKentucky Population: 4.1 million peopleLouisville Population: 500,000 peopleThe U.S. is only 5% of the world’s population, but we use ~ 1/3 of the Earth’s natural resources!!!
8 Crude Birth Rate and CDR CBR= the number of live births per 1000 members of the population in one year.CDR= the number of deaths per 1000 members of the population in one year.When calculating population change you must take into account total population size when using CDR and CBR.
9 Population change= (CBR+ immigration) – (CDR + emigration) Example: If the population is 50,000 and the number of births is 14 per 1000 and the number of deaths is 5 per 1000, what was the population change assuming no net immigration or emigration?
10 Alarming Facts…The human population is currently growing at a rate of 260,000 people per day!Every 3 years, the global environment must support another 285 million people
11 As a result of rapid growth… 1.3 billion people are impoverished841 million people are chronically malnourishedSupplies of water for irrigation are decliningNearly half of the Earth’s land mass has been changed by human activityOcean fish stocks are depletingSpecies are going extinct faster than ever
12 Earth’s Carrying Capacity (2billion-30billion) Determined byFood productionLiving spaceWaste assimilationResource availabilityCan be expanded through advances inAgricultureIndustryMedicine
13 AccomodationsTo accommodate greater populations, many policies would have to be implimented:Massive recyclingDriving restrictionsRestrictions on the transport of foodProhibitions against cutting trees on one’s propertyLimitations to burning of fossil fuels
14 Fertility ratesReplacement level fertility (RLF)= having enough kids to replace yourselfSlightly higher than 2 (2.1) b/c some kids dieTotal fertility rate (TFR)= average number of children a woman will have in her lifetimeMany factors affect like urbanization, education, contraceptives and abortion availability
15 Indicators of overall human health: Life expectancyInfant mortality rate
16 Other factors that affect population growth Policies to encourage immigrationEnvironmental refugeesReligious persecutionBaby boom generation in USWhy they are waiting to retireHow their retirement will affect the rest of us
17 Demographic Transition Pre-industrial= little to no growth (African nations)Transitional= rapid growth (Mexico, Pakistan)Industrial= stable growth (china)Post-industrial= declining growth (Japan, Russia, Germany)
18 Why are developing countries like India not moving toward Industrial stage? Most people are poor. Money is kept to few in the country.
19 Age Structures and what they tell us about future population growth: What would a stable population age structure look like?What would a declining population age structure look like?
20 Ways to lower population growth: Provide economic incentives for having fewer childrenEmpower and educate womenMore education means more money for work which mean less children are needed to take care of parentsMore education usually means having children later in life which usually means having less children
21 Cont. Family planning including contraceptives, legal abortions Improve prenatal and infant health care (need less kids if they survive)
22 China and India as case studies on family planning What do you think of these interventions?
23 What do you think?What is the US’s role (thus the taxpayers role) in other country’s population control?