No process is possible which consists solely in the transfer of heat from one temperature level to a higher one. Work is required HotCold Heat X
No apparatus can operate in such a way that its only effect in the system and surroundings is to completely convert heat absorbed by a system into work done by the system. You can’t have 100% conversion of heat into work within a closed system.
Entropy Entropy is the driving force to equilibrium. Intrinsic property that represents the unavailability of a system’s thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work.
Carnot Engine Completely reversible – No friction – Infinitesimal Temperature difference – No unrestrained expansion – No change in surroundings
Heat Engine Realistic example Heat reservoirs Rejected heat Irreversibility
Overview Flaws in first law Importance of second law