Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1
Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Spring 2006

2
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 12 Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is an old science, formulated empirically without reference to atoms or molecules. It deals with energy, as does mechanics, but adds some new quantities, besides work, potential energy and kinetic energy.

3
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 13 Thermodynamic quantities Internal energy (U): the energy of atoms or molecules that does not give macroscopic motion. Temperature (T): a measure of the internal energy of a system. Heat (Q): a way to change internal energy, besides work. (Energy in transit.)

4
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 14 Thermodynamic quantities Entropy (S): a measure of the disorder of the system. The change of entropy is equal to the heat added or removed divided by the temperature.

5
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 15 Laws of Thermodynamics First law: đQ – đW = dU Energy is conserved

6
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 16 Laws of Thermodynamics Second Law: The entropy of an isolated system increases in any irreversible process and is unaltered in any reversible process. This is the principle of increasing entropy. S 0

7
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 17 Laws of Thermodynamics Third Law: The entropy of a true equilibrium state of a system at a temperature of absolute zero is zero. Equivalent to: It is impossible to reduce the temperature of a system to absolute zero using a finite number of processes.

8
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 18 History Much of early thermodynamics development was driven by practical considerations. For example, building heat engines and refrigerators. The original statements of the second law were different.

9
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 19 Second Law Variations No series of processes is possible whose sole result is the absorption of heat from a thermal reservoir and the complete conversion of this energy to work. There are no perfect engines!

10
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 110 Second Law Variations No series of processes is possible whose sole result is the transfer of heat from a reservoir at a given temperature to a reservoir at a higher temperature. There are no perfect refrigerators!

11
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 111 Third Law It is impossible to reach a temperature of absolute zero.

12
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 112 Popular versions 1 st Law: You can’t win. 2 nd Law: You can’t break even. 3 rd Law: There’s no point in trying.

13
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 113 Statistical Mechanics In the late 19 th and early 20 th century, with the discovery of atoms, thermodynamics was treated in terms of atoms and molecules, on a statistical basis, and the subject of statistical mechanics came about.

14
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 114 Zeroth Law If two systems are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

15
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 115 Zeroth Law

16
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 116 Constant Volume Gas Thermometer

17
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 117 Constant Volume Gas Thermometer It is calibrated at the triple point of water, which is 273.16 K on the Kelvin scale. Even better:

18
Thermo & Stat Mech - Spring 2006 Class 118 Boiling Point of Water

Similar presentations

© 2021 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

To make this website work, we log user data and share it with processors. To use this website, you must agree to our Privacy Policy, including cookie policy.

Ads by Google