3 The reform spiritSocial reform: organized attempts to improve conditions of life.Jacksonian Democracy: Many people and politicians worked to make politics farer by speaking out against slavery, fighting for women’s rights, and the right for all men to vote.
4 The second great awakening Early 1800’s: A new generation begins to challenge some traditional views, starting a movement named “The Second Great Awakening”Predestination: the idea that God decided the fate of a persons soul before birth.“Doctrine of Freewill:” people decide their own destinies.Revival: A huge outdoor religious meeting.
5 Utopian communities Utopia: A perfect community. 1825: Robert Owen founds New Harmony: raised their own food, made their own goods. Arguments broke out, the community dissolved.
6 Social reformers at work The Temperance Movement: an organized effort to end alcohol abuse and the problems created by it. Prohibition: a total ban on the sale and consumption of alcohol.
7 Social reformers at work Prison Reform: More sanitary, more humane jails.Reforms for the mentally ill: Patients kept in cages and chains, Dorthea Dix urged cities to to build asylums.
8 Education reform1642: Law passed in Mass. Required all large towns to hire teachers and build schools.Horace Mann: Believed in public financing for schools. Believed education was necessary to ensure voters were intelligently informed.1837: Mann becomes head of the state board of education. Created colleges to train teachers, raised salaries of teachers, and lengthened the school year.
9 Education for african americans Southern states prohibited teaching slaves to read.In the North, most free black children did not go to the same schools as white children.1855: Massachusetts becomes first state to admit African American students into public schools.1854: Ashmun Institute opens, the nation’s first college for African Americans.
10 The fight against slavery Chapter 12 section 2 (page 423)
11 Roots of the antislavery movement 1780- Pennsylvania becomes first state to eliminate slavery Every northern state had ended or pledged to end slavery The American Colonization Society is established. Proposed slaves should be freed and gradually transported to Liberia. Unsuccessful. Why?
12 Growing opposition to slavery Abolitionists- reformers who wanted to abolish or end slavery. William Lloyd Garrison- Favored full political rights for African Americans. Co-founded the New England Anti- Slavery Society. African American Abolitionists- Prominent African Americans in the north led the fight in the abolitionist movement. Frederick Douglass- The most powerful speaker for abolitionism, an escaped slave.
13 The Underground Railroad Not underground, not a railroad, but a network of black and white people, northerners and southerners, who helped helped slaves reach freedom. Illegal. Harriet Tubman- Escorted more than 300 people to freedom through the Underground Railroad.
14 Opposing abolitionMany northern textile mill owners profited from the use of slaves to gather cotton in the south. Northern workers feared freed slaves might come north and take their jobs. These fears prompted violence against abolitionists.
15 A call for women’s rights Chapter 12 section 3 (Page 427)
16 The struggle beginsAs women participated in reform efforts, they began to realize they also wished for social reform for themselves. Women at this time (1820’s) could not vote, own land, serve on juries, attend college or enter professions such as medicine or law. Sojourner Truth- Born into slavery, became a successful public speaker. Lucretia Mott- Quaker woman, gifted public speaker.
17 Seneca Falls convention Seneca Falls Convention, summer of “to discuss social, civil, and religious rights of women.” Elizabeth Cady Stanton- Abolitionist, co-founder of Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments- “Men and women are created equal.” Women’s suffrage- the right of women to vote
18 New opportunities for women Women’s rights movement- an organized effort to improve the political, legal, and economic status of women in American society. Ally- A person joined with another for a common purpose.
19 Education for womenAmerican schools emphasized education for boys, who would grow up to be professionals Mary Lyon opens Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, the first college for women.
20 New careersWomen were gradually accepted into the workplace, entering professions such asTeacherJournalistScientist
21 Group project-Groups of 3, 1 iPad per group. In one hour, please put together a short presentation on one of the following women. -Sojourner Truth -Lucretia Mott -Elizabeth Cady Stanton -Susan B. Anthony Each group member must speak. Please include the following information: When were they born? Where were they born? What did this person accomplish? How did they effect the women’s rights movement? When did they die? How are they honored today? (Coin? Statue? Memorial? Museum?)
22 American literature and arts Chapter 12 section 4 (page 431)
23 American culture develops Before 1800’s- Modeled their work on European styles. American themes in art: Optimism, Energy Transcendentalism- A movement that sought to explore the relationship between humans and nature through emotions rather than through reason. Ralph Waldo Emerson- Transcendentalist who valued individualism- the unique importance of each individual. Henry David Thoreau: Encouraged civil disobedience- the idea that people should peacefully disobey unjust laws if their conscience demands it.
24 Flowering of American literature Herman Melville- Writer of Moby Dick, praised as one of the great American Novels. Nathaniel Hawthorne- Used historical themes to discuss the dark side of the mind. Wrote The Scarlett Letter. Louisa May Alcott- Presented a gentle view of New England life. Writer of Little Women.
25 Art and musicRomanticism- A movement that sought to stir emotions by reproducing the beauty and power of emotions. Popular songs- Work songs, songs to be chanted by men while working. “Yankee Doodle” “Camptown Races”