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New Movements in America

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Presentation on theme: "New Movements in America"— Presentation transcript:

1 New Movements in America
Chapter 14 New Movements in America

2 Essential Questions What goals did American social reformers have during the early 1800s?

3 I. Immigrants and Urban Challenges
Between – 4 million European immigrants Irish Potato Famine 1841 – potato blight (fungus) kills Irish potatoes Irish go to U.S. to escape starvation German Revolution 1848 – revolution against harsh rule fails Germans go to U.S. to escape political persecution Settled in Midwest on farms and rural areas

4 Anti-Immigration Movements
Native-born Americans feared losing jobs to immigrants willing to work for less Nativists: Americans opposed to immigration 1849 – Know-Nothing Party:

5 Rapid Growth of Cities Cities grow because of jobs and transportation
Middle Class: Entertainment Libraries Theater and concerts Playing cards Bowling, boxing, baseball New York Knickerbockers 1862

6 Urban Problems City residents lived near workplaces – many lived in tenements: poorly designed apartment buildings that housed large numbers of people Dangers:

7 II. American Arts Transcendentalism: belief that people could transcend, or rise above, material things in life (simplicity and individualism) Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller Utopian Communities:

8 American Romanticism Artists: Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Scarlet Letter
Herman Melville – Moby Dick Edgar Allan Poe – “The Raven” Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – “Paul Revere’s Ride” Walt Whitman – Leaves of Grass Washington Irving – Legend of Sleepy Hollow Emily Dickinson – well known female poet – “I’m Nobody”

9 III. Reforming Society Second Great Awakening: s – Christian renewal movement – led to movements to fix social problems Temperance Movement:

10 African American Communities
African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church 1835 – Oberlin College becomes first to accept African Americans Some opportunity to attend schools in North and Midwest – very limited in South – illegal for slaves to learn to read and write slaveholders feared revolt

11 Prison Reform Dorthea Dix: Others built reform schools for children

12 Improvements in Education
Common School Movement: Schools and colleges for women opened Thomas Gallaudet: founded first free school for the hearing impaired in 1817

13 IV. The Movement to End Slavery
Abolition: complete end to slavery Quakers were among the first abolitionists Abolitionists differed though on treatment of African Americans Colonization:

14 Famous Abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison: published The Liberator – founded the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833 Sarah and Angelina Grimke:

15 Famous Abolitionist Frederick Douglass: escaped slave who learned to read and write – published The North Star Sojourner Truth:

16 The Underground Railroad
Network of people who arranged transportation and hiding places for fugitive or escaped slaves Harriet Tubman:

17 Opposition to Ending Slavery
Northern workers feared freed slaves would take their jobs Southerners saw it as a threat to way of life socially and economically Gag Rule:

18 V. Women’s Rights Fighting for African American rights led many female abolitionists to fight for women’s rights Margaret Fuller: wrote Women in the 19th Century in 1845 – stressed individualism

19 Seneca Falls Convention
First public meeting about women’s rights held in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott Declaration of Sentiments:

20 Famous Women’s Rights Leaders
Lucy Stone: gifted women’s rights speaker Susan B. Anthony: turned women’s rights into a political movement for equality and voting Elizabeth Cady Stanton:

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