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Chapter 11 Instructional Procedures © Taylor & Francis 2015
WHAT ASSUMPTIONS GUIDE INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY? Students with CIDs benefit from the same patterns of schooling as students who do not have disabilities. To master the knowledge and skills needed for the future, most students with CIDs will require explicit instruction. Students with CIDs will make remarkable learning gains when provided with powerful instruction. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW DO TEACHERS ORGANIZE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS? Isolated skill teaching - Requires direct instruction on discrete, specific skills. Integrated skill teaching - Infuses instruction into routines and skill sequences. Splinter skills - Skills that are developed in isolation. Integrated instruction is a critical practice for students with CIDs. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW DO TEACHERS ORGANIZE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS? Thematic instruction - Includes instruction on specific skills in the context of broad topics or themes. Unit approach to instruction - Introduces skills and knowledge across subject matter. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW DO TEACHERS ORGANIZE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS? Physical and personal structure – Modifications that provide students with visual and environmental assistance. Visual cues and structure involves positioning and organizing materials so tasks can be completed with little to no verbal information. Personal schedules help students sequence their daily activities. Permanent prompts - Include visual, auditory, or other assists that do not need to be removed. Work systems - Structured and organized materials that add visual clarity to tasks. Classrooms should be organized into work and nonwork areas. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW DO TEACHERS ORGANIZE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS? Classrooms should be organized into work and nonwork areas. Transition area - A place for students to go after completing tasks, and before proceeding to the next one. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW DO TEACHERS ORGANIZE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS? Acquisition - Involves learning new concepts, skills, and actions. Fluency - The combination of accuracy and speed that allows a skill to be useful in a natural environment. Generalization - Involves using a skill in new ways or under novel conditions. Teachers use different instructional procedures for lessons aimed toward acquisition, fluency, or generalization. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW IS INSTRUCTION DELIVERED? Instructional collaboration - Requires teachers, families, and other professionals to exchange information about student learning and development. Natural environments - Provide a real-world context for learning new skills. The location of instruction should match the nature of the curriculum. Individualized instruction does not mean one-to-one instructional delivery. One-to-one instruction can assist most learners at some point when learning new skills. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW IS INSTRUCTION DELIVERED? Choral responding - A delivery format that results in students giving a group, unison reply. Interactive group instruction - Requires peer-to-peer engagement. One-to-one in a group format - Elicits participation from individual students while maintaining a group activity. Task analysis is helpful for teaching as well as assessment. Steps in a task analysis can be taught simultaneously, or in a sequential manner. Teacher assistance can be task analyzed when teaching a skill as a whole. A task analysis of teachers’ prompts is frequently referred to as graduated guidance. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW IS INSTRUCTION DELIVERED? Chaining - Involves teaching each step of a skill at a time. Errorless learning - Procedures that reinforce any active student efforts to participate in learning activities. Match-to-sample format - Minimizes errors by providing students with an example of the desired outcome. A discrete trial teaching format - A structured learning opportunity that requires an obvious student reply. Teaching trials can be delivered in a massed or distributed format. A most-to-least prompt format - Begins with a maximum degree of teacher assistance, then decreases assistance as the student learns to produce the skill. Teacher assistance can include physical, gestural, vocal, pictorial prompts. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW IS INSTRUCTION DELIVERED? A least-to-most prompt format - Begins with minimum teacher assistance, and increases assistance if the student does not show evidence of learning. Naturalistic teaching procedures incorporate instruction and practice opportunities into regularly occurring classroom activities. Problem behavior requires an intervention when it occurs at too high or too low a frequency, when it occurs out of context, or when it becomes a preoccupation that interferes with learning. Discipline and management procedures are often ineffective because they do not teach students what to do in place of the problem behavior. An instructional approach treats challenging behavior as a behavioral error. A functional behavioral assessment (FBA) provides information on the purpose or function served by a student’s challenging behavior. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW IS INSTRUCTION DELIVERED? The functions of problem behavior are that students get something they want, or get away from something they don’t want. Behavioral interventions are most likely to be effective when they match the function of the challenging behavior and teach the student a replacement skill. The shift from behavior management to an instructional paradigm has helped many educators rethink their actions as providing positive behavioral support. Positive behavior support can be implemented for individual students, classwide, and schoolwide. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW IS INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRESS MONITORED? Instructional assessment procedures should help teachers make decisions about the content and delivery of their lessons. Progress monitoring based on teacher observations is a direct means of assessing student skills’ performance. Accuracy and completion of tasks – Often monitored by calculating the percentage of responses correct. The level of accuracy needed to demonstrate mastery of a task depends on the nature of the task, and the impact of any errors on the student. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW IS INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRESS MONITORED? Student rate of progress - The total number of times a skill occurs, during a specific period of time. Fluency is a strong indication of proficiency in skills and knowledge because it incorporates both accuracy and speed. © Taylor & Francis 2015
HOW IS INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRESS MONITORED? Rate is a precise measure of behavioral fluency. Interval monitoring system - Used to record whether a behavior occurs within a fixed period of time. Decision rules - Guidelines teachers can use to make decisions about what to teach and how to teach it. Progress monitoring should include an evaluation of support needed by the student to perform at a given level. © Taylor & Francis 2015
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