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Supporting the Instructional Process Instructional Assistant Training.

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1 Supporting the Instructional Process Instructional Assistant Training

2 Agenda Identify instructional concepts (cues/prompting, modeling, shaping, wait time, intrinsic/ extrinsic reinforcers, and fading) Apply these instructional concepts to scenarios as strategies to teach independence Identify and apply factors that promote learning under the direction of the partner teacher(s) Recognize the different stages of learning and utilize suggested instructional strategies at each stage

3 PD Opportunities 3 rd Quarter- February 26 th Behavior Improvement Strategies 4 th Quarter- April 8 th TBD based upon participant evaluations and feedback

4 Instructional strategies/ Concepts

5 Activity You will work in your groups. Groups will match the BLUE concept with the GREEN definition, and two YELLOW Scenarios.

6 Concept 1: Cues/ Prompting Verbal or nonverbal signals that indicate what action is necessary (use from least to most intrusive cues/ prompts) o Draw attention to the natural cues/prompts in some way o Ask a question about necessary action o Give an option o Tell the student what action to take o Physically guide the student through the process

7 Cues/ Prompting Scenarios

8 Concept 2: Modeling To demonstrate a behavior or completion of task for the learner o Point out someone who is doing the behavior correctly o Demonstrate the action that needs to be taken

9 Modeling Scenarios

10 Concept 3: Shaping To teach a behavior or task by providing cues, models and consequences for steps demonstrated gradually until the final behavior or task is learned o Break the task/ behavior into small steps o Model steps o Have student complete initial or final step of the task that has been broken down into smaller steps and modeled for the student o Gradually add steps for the student to complete

11 Shaping Scenarios

12 Concept 4: Wait Time The amount of time given to the student to respond to a question or complete a task o After questioning/ modeling allowing adequate time for the student to respond before providing further cues or prompts

13 Wait Time Scenarios

14 Concept 5: Fading A gradual reduction of cues, prompts, and extrinsic reinforcers as the student demonstrates desired behavior or task

15 Fading Scenarios

16 Concept 6: Intrinsic Reinforcers Reinforcers that occur naturally; student’s personal interests and motivations o Draw attention to the natural consequences of performing the behavior/ task o Ask a question about what natural consequences result from performing the behavior o Pair the intrinsic reinforcer with an extrinsic reinforcer

17 Intrinsic Scenarios

18 Concept 7: Extrinsic Reinforcers Reinforcers that are contrived (not naturally occurring) and are intentionally provided to increase the behavior or to ensure task completion o Reward systems o First/ Then (behavior or task followed by desired activity)

19 Extrinsic Scenarios

20 Factors that Promote Learning

21 Factor 1: Using effective classroom management Frequent monitoring of activities by teacher and paraeducator Establishing and teaching routine activities through demonstration, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, and generalization procedures (e.g. transitions, exchanging papers, gathering materials, leaving the classroom) Teacher and paraeducator engaging in frequent positive and supportive interactions Reinforcing student accomplishments

22 Factor 2: Using direct systematic teaching Demonstration Guided practice with prompts Feedback

23 Factor 3: Focusing on time for learning Ensuring that students are actively engaged in learning activities for longer periods of time or increasing their time on task

24 Factor 4: Providing opportunities for success Once an instructional strategy has been effective in teaching a skill, allowing for repetitive correct responses builds fluency and competence.

25 Factor 5: Establishing goals and expectations Having a specific goal with mastery criteria provides a rationale for academic tasks. Achievement improves when students are expected to succeed.

26 Factor 6: Monitoring progress and giving feedback Frequently checking on students’ progress Adapting instruction to ensure that an appropriate instructional match is being maintained

27 Factor 7: Providing positive and supportive learning environments Emphasizing the positive events in the classroom rather than the negative ones Voicing the belief that all children can learn Reinforcing productivity Developing instructional plans that consider the needs and characteristics of the students

28 Factor 8: Teaching students to generalize learning Teaching students how to use learning strategies and then give them practice utilizing them across subjects. Utilizing attributional retraining which centers on teaching students to see that success is due to their own efforts and not ease of task or luck. Focusing on metacognitive training that teaches the students to self-evaluate and self-monitor how they solve or complete a task

29 Group Discussion You will be assigned 1 or 2 Factors that Promote Learning. Discuss what role you have played when implementing that factor. List concrete strategies and examples that support the factor.

30 Activity In groups of 3 or 4, discuss the provided scenario. Determine what factors of learning are being demonstrated.




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