2 GPS Standard:SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystema. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities , ecosystems and biomes
3 Ecology: Ecological Relationships Identify relationships among components in an ecosystemRelate adaptations to the survival of organismsExplain the adaptations of an organism that enable the organism to be successful within an ecosystemRelate the stages of succession to changes in an ecosystem after a natural disaster
4 Organisms and Their Environment Biotic – living factors in an ecosystemGrass, trees, animals, insectsAbiotic – nonliving factors in an ecosystemRocks, soil, water, air, mineralsAbiotic factors often determine the Biotic factors in a community
5 Levels of Organization in Ecology OrganismPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiomeBiosphere
7 A single individual of a particular species. What defines a group as a species?
8 Organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring = _____________SPECIES
9 EX: Horse X donkey = mule EX: Horse X donkey = mule64 chromosomes62 chromosomes63 chromosomesHorses and donkeys are different species.If you breed them, the result is a mulewhich can NOT have offspring!
17 Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar climax communities.
18 The portion of the planet in which all life exists = _________________ The scientific study of interactions of organisms with each other and with their environment = ______________The portion of the planet in which all life exists = _________________(includes land, water, atmosphere)ECOLOGYBIOSPHEREExtends from about8 km above the Earth’s surfaceto 11 km below the ocean’s surface
19 Organisms in Ecosystems Every organism in an Ecosystem has a job or role. It’s NICHE.The place where an organism lives is its HABITAT
20 HABITAT vs NICHE? Habitat is like an address OCCUPATION HABITAT vs NICHE?Habitat is like anorganism’s ____________Niche is like anorganism’s ______________addressOCCUPATION
21 Section 2.2GPS Standard:SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystemb. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems by*Arranging components of a food chain according to energy flow* Comparing the quantity of energy in the steps of an energy pyramid21
22 Ecology: Transfer of Matter and Energy Recognize the role of an organism within a food chain or food webAnalyze the transfer of energy and matter through an ecosystemExplain the concept of an ecosystem in terms of its components and the flow of matter and energy through the systemConstruct food chains and webs, based on the position of an organism within an ecosystem
23 The Earth is SOLAR POWERED! ALL LIVING THINGS USE ENERGYThe Earth is SOLAR POWERED!_____________ is the main source of energy for life on Earth.SUNLIGHT
24 AUTOTROPHS = PRODUCERS Can make their own food ALL LIVING THINGS USE ENERGYAUTOTROPHS = PRODUCERS Can make their own foodPHOTOSYNTHESISMost autotrophs use _______________to capture solar energyMain producers on land= green plantsIn water = algaeBIOLOGY; MIller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006
25 HETEROTROPHS = ____________ Get energy from consuming other organisms CONSUMERSHETEROTROPHS = ____________ Get energy from consuming other organisms
26 HETEROTROPHS = CONSUMERS HERBIVORES________________ =eat only plantseat only animalseat both plants & animalsCARNIVORESOMNIVORES
27 HETEROTROPHS = CONSUMERS DETRITIVORES________________ =feed on plant & animal remainsEX: mites, earthworms,snails, crabsbreak down and absorb organic matterEX: bacteria & fungiDECOMPOSERS
28 ↑ ↑ CONSUMERS (Heterotrophs) PRODUCERS (Autotrophs) Energy flows through an ecosystem in a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by being eatenCONSUMERS (Heterotrophs)_________________________________= _________________↑↑PRODUCERS (Autotrophs)FOOD CHAIN
29 Energy Flow in An Ecosystem Food chain – chain of energy movement from organism to organism**Arrows show the flow of energy29
30 In most ecosystems feeding relationships are more complex Pearson Education Inc, Publishing as Pearson Prentice HallIn most ecosystems feeding relationships are more complexFOOD WEBA ______________ links ALL the food chains in an ecosystem together.
31 PRODUCERS FIRST Each step in a food chain or web = _______________ ALWAYSmake up the________trophic level.TROPHIC LEVELPRODUCERSFIRST
32 Lower levels must be bigger to support the level above. Only about_____ ofthe energy fromeach level is passedon.10%
33 Some energy is used for life processes such as growth, development, movement,metabolism,transport, andreproduction.The rest islost as ________HEAT
35 Living relationshipsSymbiosis – the interactions of organisms in an ecosystemPredator/Prey – one kills and one is eatenCommensalism – one benefitsMutualism – both benefitsParasitism – one benefits and one is harmedCompetition – when two or more organisms use one resource
37 Cut out your organisms.Organize them into a food web on your piece of construction paper.Check your web with one of us before you glue it.Label trophic levels, producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers.Draw arrows to show the flow of energy.Label each consumer as carnivore, herbivore, omnivore, or scavenger.