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Proteins and Amino Acids: Function Follows Form

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Presentation on theme: "Proteins and Amino Acids: Function Follows Form"— Presentation transcript:

1 Proteins and Amino Acids: Function Follows Form
BIOL 103, Chapter 7-2

2 Today’s Topics Proteins in the Diet
The Pros and Cons of Vegetarian Eating The Health Effects of Eating Too Little or Too Much Protein

3 Proteins in the Diet Recommended protein intake
Adult RDA = _________________________ __________ have highest needs relative to body weight Why? ___________________________________ Physical stress ___________ your body’s needs for proteins Infection, burns, fevers, surgery, intensive weight training Consumption in the US Generally within or higher than recommended range

4 Problem Set 7, Question 1: How is it that our bodies are able to synthesize so many proteins in our body when our dietary protein requirement is relatively low?

5 Protein Quality Protein Quality
Complete proteins: supply _____ essential amino acids ________________________ Examples: animal proteins, soy proteins Incomplete proteins: _______________ essential amino acids Examples: most plant proteins

6 Protein Quality Incomplete and Complementary Proteins
Except soy, proteins in other plant foods is incomplete (lacks 1 or more essential AA). _________ incomplete complementary proteins = ___________________ Examples: rice and beans, peanut butter and bread, pea soup with crackers, corn and tortilla.

7 Evaluating Protein Quality
A high-quality protein: Provides ______________________ at amounts the body needs Provides __________________________ ________________________for making non-essential amino acids Easy to ____________ Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCASS): measure of protein quality that takes account the AA composition of the food and the digestibility of the protein.

8 Proteins and Amino Acids as Additives and Supplements
Protein and AA additives Contribute to Protein and AA supplements Used for a variety of reasons: dieters, athletes, certain diseases. Risks are unknown

9 Vegetarian vs. Vegan Vegetarian Vegan ___________________ Don’t Eat:
Types: Ovo-vegetarian: Lacto-vegetarian: Products: Don’t mind using animal-derived products. ______________________ Don’t Eat: Products: Avoids using ______________________ ________ including clothing, cosmetics, household, foods. For this section, just know this!

10 Pros and Cons of Vegetarian Eating Problem Set 7, Question 4
Health Benefits Health Risks Less ___________________ More magnesium, folate More _________________ More _________________ ______________________ Reduces risk for heart disease, hypertension, and cancer. Vegans may be low in: calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin B12 Higher intake of _________ More restrictive food choices = _______________

11 The Pros and Cons of Vegetarian Eating
Diet recommendations (pg. 258): Choose a variety of foods Choose whole, unrefined foods Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables Choose lower-fat dairy products and eggs in moderation Consume a regular source of vitamins B12 and D Fortified foods or supplements

12 The Health Effects of Too Little Protein
Dietary protein = essential amino acids Protein deficiency: ______________________ ________________________ ________________________________ Kwashiorkor: _______________________ Symptoms: _____________, poor growth, bloated belly Affects those between age of months old Associated with extreme poverty

13 The Health Effects of Too Little Protein
PEM, cont. Marasmus: _____________________________ Chronic PEM; “withering” Affects Infants and 6-18 months old children Usually the children are _____________ for their age How to treat? Nutritional rehabilitation Gradual and careful refeeding Must start with fluid and electrolyte balance, then introduce nutrients

14 The Health Effects of Too Much Proteins

15 The Health Effects of Too Much Proteins
Strains kidney function Too much protein overwhelms kidneys, which need to excrete products of protein breakdown Obesity Too much protein, becomes fat. May alter ________________  ______________ ______________________

16 The Health Effects of Too Much Proteins
Heart disease If you eat too much ________________  increased saturated fat and cholesterol intake Cancer Increased risk for certain types of cancer if you eat red meat Example: animal protein/pork/beef and colon cancer

17 Problem Set 7, Q5 Name two health effects related to consuming a very high protein diet.

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