Presentation on theme: "Proteins and Amino Acids: Function Follows Form"— Presentation transcript:
1 Proteins and Amino Acids: Function Follows Form BIOL 103, Chapter 7-2
2 Today’s Topics Proteins in the Diet The Pros and Cons of Vegetarian EatingThe Health Effects of Eating Too Little or Too Much Protein
3 Proteins in the Diet Recommended protein intake Adult RDA = ___________________________________ have highest needs relative to body weightWhy? ___________________________________Physical stress ___________ your body’s needs for proteinsInfection, burns, fevers, surgery, intensive weight trainingConsumption in the USGenerally within or higher than recommended range
4 Problem Set 7, Question 1:How is it that our bodies are able to synthesize so many proteins in our body when our dietary protein requirement is relatively low?
5 Protein Quality Protein Quality Complete proteins: supply _____ essential amino acids________________________Examples: animal proteins, soy proteinsIncomplete proteins: _______________ essential amino acidsExamples: most plant proteins
6 Protein Quality Incomplete and Complementary Proteins Except soy, proteins in other plant foods is incomplete (lacks 1 or more essential AA)._________ incomplete complementary proteins = ___________________Examples: rice and beans, peanut butter and bread, pea soup with crackers, corn and tortilla.
7 Evaluating Protein Quality A high-quality protein:Provides ______________________ at amounts the body needsProvides __________________________ ________________________for making non-essential amino acidsEasy to ____________Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCASS): measure of protein quality that takes account the AA composition of the food and the digestibility of the protein.
8 Proteins and Amino Acids as Additives and Supplements Protein and AA additivesContribute toProtein and AA supplementsUsed for a variety of reasons: dieters, athletes, certain diseases.Risks are unknown
9 Vegetarian vs. Vegan Vegetarian Vegan ___________________ Don’t Eat: Types:Ovo-vegetarian:Lacto-vegetarian:Products: Don’t mind using animal-derived products.______________________Don’t Eat:Products: Avoids using ______________________ ________ including clothing, cosmetics, household, foods.For this section, just know this!
10 Pros and Cons of Vegetarian Eating Problem Set 7, Question 4 Health BenefitsHealth RisksLess ___________________More magnesium, folateMore _________________More _________________ ______________________Reduces risk for heart disease, hypertension, and cancer.Vegans may be low in: calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin B12Higher intake of _________More restrictive food choices = _______________
11 The Pros and Cons of Vegetarian Eating Diet recommendations (pg. 258):Choose a variety of foodsChoose whole, unrefined foodsChoose a variety of fruits and vegetablesChoose lower-fat dairy products and eggs in moderationConsume a regular source of vitamins B12 and DFortified foods or supplements
12 The Health Effects of Too Little Protein Dietary protein = essential amino acidsProtein deficiency: ______________________ ________________________________________________________Kwashiorkor: _______________________Symptoms: _____________, poor growth, bloated bellyAffects those between age of months oldAssociated with extreme poverty
13 The Health Effects of Too Little Protein PEM, cont.Marasmus: _____________________________Chronic PEM; “withering”Affects Infants and 6-18 months old childrenUsually the children are _____________ for their ageHow to treat?Nutritional rehabilitationGradual and careful refeedingMust start with fluid and electrolyte balance, then introduce nutrients
15 The Health Effects of Too Much Proteins Strains kidney functionToo much protein overwhelms kidneys, which need to excrete products of protein breakdownObesityToo much protein, becomes fat.May alter ________________ ______________ ______________________
16 The Health Effects of Too Much Proteins Heart diseaseIf you eat too much ________________ increased saturated fat and cholesterol intakeCancerIncreased risk for certain types of cancer if you eat red meatExample: animal protein/pork/beef and colon cancer
17 Problem Set 7, Q5Name two health effects related to consuming a very high protein diet.