Amino acids are absorbed in the small intestine Amino acids are transported to the liver from the intestines via the portal vein In the liver, amino acids are Used to synthesize new proteins Converted to energy, glucose, or fat Released to the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body Occasionally proteins are absorbed intact
Functions of protein Provide structural and mechanical support Maintain body tissues Functions as enzymes and hormones Help maintain acid base balance Transport nutrients Assist the immune system Serve as a source of energy when necessary
Structural protein – collagen helps build bones - ligaments that bind them - tendons that connect them to the muscles New growth and repair They make up enzymes for helping chemical reactions They make up antibodies in the immune system Supply energy
Without these particular structural proteins, we would look more like this….
Proteins are made of long chains (polymers) made of monomers. All proteins are made of the monomer…
Body creates all of its proteins from 22 different amino acids 13 are manufactured 9 are essential amino acids – body needs them but cannot make them
Complete proteins Contain all nine essential amino acids Usually animal source are complete proteins Are considered higher quality Incomplete proteins Low in one or more essential amino acid Usually plant sources are incomplete
Complete proteins contain amounts of all nine essential amino acids. SOURCES INCLUDE: *Fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt, and many soybean products.
Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids. SOURCES INCLUDE: *Beans, peas, nuts, and whole grains.
Vegetarian Diets-Reasons Health Religion Ethical Environmental Taste Vegetarians must consume adequate amounts of a variety of food and should plan meals well
Vegetarian diets can be a healthy eating style that may help reduce the risk of some chronic disease Some vegetarians abstain from all animal products Some vegetarians eat eggs and dairy in limited amounts Vegetarians must plan their diets carefully to meet their nutrient needs, especially ProteinRiboflavin IronVitamin B 12 ZincVitamin A CalciumOmega-3 fatty acids Vitamin D
Potential risks of a vegetarian diet Underconsumption of certain nutrients Protein Vitamin B 12
Vegetarian reduced risk obesity diabetes hypertension heart disease digestive disorders cancer Meat eaters growth support during critical times.
A teen female whose ideal body mass is 55 kg needs about 44 g of protein a day (55kg X 0.8 g/kg = 44 g) Determine your RDA (0.8 gram/kg) 0.8 gram/kg 0.9 for males under age 18 wt in lb/2.2 lb per kg)x0.8=RDA