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©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 81 Defining and Classifying Groups Formal Command Groups Task Groups Interest Groups Friendship Groups Informal
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 82 1. FORMING Member Questions - What is expected of me? - What are our goals and why? - Who are these other people? - How do I fit in? - How much work will this involve? Interpersonal Issues Uncertainty, self-consciousness, Silence, Dependence Task Issues orient members, establish trust, establish clear purpose Leader Behaviors - Make introductions - Establish foundation of trust - Model expected behaviors - Clarify goals and expectations
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 83 2. STORMING Member Questions - How will disagreements be handled? - How will negative info. be communicated? - Can team members (leader) be changed? - How can we make decisions? - Do I want to stay on team? Interpersonal Issues Disagreements & competition among members, Cliques being formed, Task Issues Manage conflict, overcome group think, Examine key work processes Leader Behaviors - Be an effective mediator - Identify a common goal - Provide individual & team recognition - Foster win-win thinking
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 84 3. NORMING Member Questions - What are the expectations? - What role is best for me? - Will I be supported? - How much should I conform? - How much should I invest? Interpersonal Issues Cooperation, conformity to norms, Commitment to team vision Task Issues Maintain unity and cohesion, Clarify and differentiate roles Leader Behaviors - Facilitate role differentiation - Support team members - Provide feedback - Articulate vision - Generate commitment to vision
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 85 4. PERFORMING Member Questions - How can we continuously improve? - How can we be more creative? - How can we build on our competencies? - How can we maintain our energy & commitment to the team? Interpersonal Issues High mutual trust & commitment to team, Support of team members Task Issues Capitalize on competencies, improve speed Encourage creative problem-solving Leader Behaviors - Foster creativity & continuous improvement - Support team members in their roles - Provide ongonig feedback on team performance - Help team avoid reverting to earlier stages - Advance the quality culture of the team
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 86 Team Development 1. FORMING break the ice ; facilitate 2. STORMING conflict, disagreement ; resolve differences 3. NORMING order ; clarify roles and values 4. Performing cooperation, problem-solving ; task accomplishment 5. Adjourning group disbands when goals are met
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 87 Who Should be on Team? Questions to be Asked? What are we trying to accomplish? Task vs. Growth & Development Need for Functional Expertise - Engineering types - Operations / manufacturing - Marketing / sales - Finance / accounting When are people needed?
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 88 Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Time (Low) (High) First Meeting Phase 1 Phase 2 Transition Completion AB(A+B)/2 Performance
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 89 Sociometry and Analyzing Group Interaction Social networks Clusters Isolates Coalitions Emergent clusters Cliques Stars Liaisons Bridges Prescribed clusters
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 810 Group Behavior Model ExternalConditions PerformanceandSatisfaction GroupTask GroupStructure GroupMemberResources GroupProcesses
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 811 External Conditions Imposed on the Group Overall strategy Authority structures Formal regulations Resources Employee selection Evaluation-rewards Culture Work setting
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 812 The Resources of Group Members Knowledge, Skills, and AbilitiesPersonalityCharacteristics
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 813 Identity Group Roles Expectations ConflictPerception
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 814 Performance Group Norms Appearance ResourcesArrangement
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 815 Size of the Group Small groups Large groups Social loafing Individual effort
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 816 The Composition of the Group The Composition of the Group DiversityDiversityCohortsCohortsDemographyDemography
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 817 High Productivity Moderate Productivity Moderate to Low Productivity Low Productivity Cohesiveness Performance Norms HighLow Cohesiveness-Productivity Relationship High Low
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 818 Effects of Group Processes Potential Group Effectiveness Potential Group Effectiveness Potential Group Effectiveness Potential Group Effectiveness Process Losses Social Loafing Process Losses Social Loafing Process Gains Synergy Process Gains Synergy
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 819 Group Decision Making Advantages More Diversity of Views Increased information Higher-quality decisions Improved Commitment Disadvantages Dominant Individuals Unclear Responsibility Time and money costs Conformity pressures
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 820 Group Effectiveness and Efficiency AccuracyCreativity AcceptanceSpeed
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