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© 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-1 Foundations of Group Behavior Chapter 7 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e Stephen P. Robbins.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-1 Foundations of Group Behavior Chapter 7 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e Stephen P. Robbins."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-1 Foundations of Group Behavior Chapter 7 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e Stephen P. Robbins

2 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-2 Groups Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives Formal or informal

3 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-3 Four Types of Groups Command Task Interest Friendship

4 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-4 Why People Join Groups

5 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-5 Basic Group Concepts Roles Norms Status Cohesiveness Size Composition

6 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-6 Roles To engage in a set of expected behavior patterns that are attributed to occupying a given position in a social unit

7 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-7 Roles Psychological contract Unwritten agreement that exists between employees and their employer Sets out mutual expectations

8 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-8 Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are adopted and shared by the group’s members

9 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-9 The Hawthorne Studies Series of studies at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works, Chicago Examined the relation between the physical environment and productivity Researchers’ findings contradicted their anticipated results

10 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-10 The Hawthorne Studies Concluded that a worker’s behavior and sentiments were closely related Group influences were significant in affecting individual behavior.

11 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-11 The Hawthorne Studies Group standards were highly effective in establishing individual worker output. Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.

12 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-12 Conformity and the Asch Studies Demonstrated that subjects conformed in about 35% of the trials Members desire to be one of the group and avoid being visibly different Members with differing opinions feel extensive pressure to align with others

13 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-13 Examples of Cards Used in Asch Study XABC

14 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-14 Status - a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others

15 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-15 What Determines Status? The power a person wields over others A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals An individual’s personal characteristics

16 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-16 The importance of status varies between cultures

17 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-17 Cohesiveness The degree to which members of the group are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group

18 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-18 Relationship of Cohesiveness to Productivity Cohesiveness Alignment of group and organizational goals HighLow High Low Decrease in productivity No significant effect on productivity Strong increase in productivity Moderate increase in productivity

19 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-19 How Can Managers Encourage Cohesiveness? Make the group smaller Encourage agreement on group goals Increase the time spent together Increase the status and perceived difficulty of group membership

20 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-20 More Ways Managers Can Encourage Cohesiveness Stimulate competition with other groups Give rewards to the group rather than members Physically isolate the group

21 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-21 How Size Affects a Group Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks Large groups are consistently better at problem solving Increases in group size are inversely related to individual performance

22 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-22 Social loafing - tendency to expend less effort in a group than as an individual

23 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-23 Composition When a group is diverse, there is an increased probability that it will possess the needed characteristics to complete its tasks effectively.

24 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-24 Composition Diversity promotes conflict, which stimulates creativity, which leads to improved decision making

25 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-25 Individual versus Group Decision Making Individual More efficient Speed No meetings No discussions Clear accountability Consistent values Group More effective More information and knowledge Diversity of views Higher-quality decisions Increased acceptance

26 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-26 Symptoms of Groupthink Group members rationalize any resistance to their assumptions Members pressure any doubters to support the alternative favored by the majority

27 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-27 Symptoms of Groupthink Doubters keep silent about misgivings and minimize their importance Group interprets members’ silence as a “yes” vote for the majority

28 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-28 Variables Influencing Groupthink Group’s cohesiveness Leader’s behavior Insulation from outsiders Time pressures Failure to follow methodical decision- making procedures

29 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-29 Groupshift Decision of the group reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group’s discussion

30 © 2005 Prentice-Hall 7-30 Selecting the Best Decision- Making Technique Brainstorming Nominal group technique Electronic meetings

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