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Part 4: Leading PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 9 Understanding Work Teams
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–2 L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S After reading this chapter, I will be able to: 1.Explain the growing popularity of work teams in organizations. 2.Describe the five stages of team development. 3.Contrast work groups with work teams. 4.Identify four common types of work teams. 5.Explain what types of teams entrepreneurial organization use. 6.List the characteristics of high-performing work teams.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–3 L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S (cont’d) After reading this chapter, I will be able to: 7.Discuss how organizations can create team players. 8.Explain how managers can keep teams from becoming stagnant. 9.Describe the role of teams in continuous process improvement programs.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–4 The Popularity Of Teams Teams typically outperform individuals when tasks require multiple skills, judgment, and experience. Teams are a better way to utilize individual employee talents. The flexibility and responsiveness of teams is essential in a changing environment Empowered teams increase job satisfaction and morale, enhance employee involvement, and promote workforce diversity.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–5 Stages of Team Development EXHIBIT 9.1
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–6 The Stages Of Team Development Stage 1: Forming The team experiences uncertainty about its purpose, structure, and leadership. Stage 2: Storming Intragroup conflict predominates within the group Stage 3: Norming Close relationships develop and group members begin to demonstrate cohesiveness. Stage 4: Performing The team develops a structure that is fully functional and accepted by team members. Stage 5: Adjourning The team prepares for its disbandment.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–7 Work Groups And Work Teams Work group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions that will help each member perform within his or her area of responsibility Work team A group that engages in collective work that requires joint effort and generates a positive synergy.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–8 Comparing Work Teams and Work Groups EXHIBIT 9.2
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–9 Types of Work Teams EXHIBIT 9.3
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–10 Types Of Work Teams Functional team A work team composed of a manager and the employees in his or her unit and involved in efforts to improve work activities or to solve specific problems within particular functional unit Problem-solving team 5 to 12 hourly employees from the same department who meet each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–11 Types Of Work Teams (cont’d) Quality circle 8 to 10 employees and supervisors who share an area of responsibility and who meet regularly to discuss quality problems, investigate the causes of the problem, recommend solutions, and take corrective actions but who have no authority Self-managed work team A formal group of employees that operates without a manager and is responsible for a complete work process or segment that delivers a product or service to an external or internal customer
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–12 Types Of Work Teams (cont’d) Cross-functional work team A team composed of employees from about the same hierarchical level but form different work areas in an organization who are brought together to accomplish a particular task Virtual team A team that meets electronically; allows groups to meet without concern for space or time
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–13 ENTREPRENEURS’ USE TEAMS Empowered functional teams Teams that have authority to plan and implement process improvements Self-directed teams Teams that are nearly autonomous and responsible for many activities that were once the jurisdiction of managers Cross-functional teams Teams that include a hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties and who work together on various tasks
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–14 Why Entrepreneurs Use Teams Teams facilitate the technology and market demands the organization is facing. Teams help the organization to make products faster, cheaper, and better. Teams permit entrepreneurs to tap into the collective wisdom of the venture’s employees. Teams empower employees to make decisions. Team culture can improve the overall workplace environment and worker morale.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–15 Characteristics of High-performing Work Teams EXHIBIT 9.4
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–16 Challenges to Creating Team Players Managers attempting to introduce teams into organization face the most difficulty when: When individual employee resistance to teams is strong. Where the national culture is individualistic rather than collectivist. When an established organization places high values on and significantly rewards individual achievement.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–17 Team Member Roles EXHIBIT 9.5 Source: Based on C. Margerison and D. McCann, Team Management: Practical New Approaches (London: Mercury Books, 1990).
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–18 Shaping Team Behavior Proper selection Hire employees who have both the technical skills and the interpersonal skills required to fulfill team roles. Employee training Provide training that involves employees in learning the behaviors required to become team players. Rewarding the appropriate team behaviors Create a reward system that encourages cooperative efforts rather than competitive ones.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–19 How to Reinvigorate Mature Teams EXHIBIT 9.6
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–20 Teams And Continuous Process Improvement Programs Teams provide the natural vehicle for employees to share ideas and implement improvements. Teams are well suited to the high levels of communication and contact, response, adaptation, and coordination and sequencing in work environments where continuous process improvement programs are in place.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.9–21 Workforce Diversity’s Effects on Teams Fresh and multiple perspectives on issues help the team identify creative or unique solutions and avoid weak alternatives. The difficulty of working together may make it harder to unify a diverse team and reach agreements. Although diversity’s advantages dissipate with time, the added-value of diverse teams increases as the team becomes more cohesive.
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