Chapter 8: Foundations of Group Behavior
The Five Stage Model of Group Development
Stages of Group Development (cont’d)
The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model
Group Behavior Model: External Conditions
Imposed Conditions: Organization’s overall strategy Authority structures Formal regulations Resource constraints Selection process Performance and evaluation system Organization’s culture Physical work setting
Group Member Resources
Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities Interpersonal skills Conflict management and resolution Collaborative problem solving Communication Personality Characteristics Sociability Initiative Openness Flexibility
Group Structure - Roles (cont’d)
Group Structure - Norms
Examples of Cards Used in Asch’s Study
Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity
Group Tasks – When to use large or small groups?
Decision-making Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks. Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks. *Consider: What is the task? Simple or complex?
Group vs. Individual Decision Making
Strengths: Group More complete information Increased diversity of views Higher quality of decisions Increased acceptance of solutions Weaknesses: Group More time consuming Increased pressure to conform Domination by one or a few members Ambiguous responsibility
Group Decision Making (cont’d)
Summary & Implications for Managers
Performance: Structural factors show a relationship to performance. There is a positive relationship between role perception and an employee’s performance evaluation. Norms control group member behavior by establishing standards of right and wrong. Status inequities create frustration and can adversely influence productivity. The impact of size on a group’s performance depends upon the type of task in which the group is engaged. Satisfaction: Most people prefer to communicate with others at their own status level or a higher one. Large groups are associated with lower satisfaction.
Chapter 9: Why Have “Teams” Become So Popular?
Teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills, judgment and experience. Teams use employee talents better. Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment. Teams facilitate employee involvement. Teams are an effective way to democratize an organization and increase motivation.
Work Groups vs. Work Teams
Four Types of Teams Problem-solving teams - usually 5-12 members from same department meeting to improve quality, efficiency and work environment Self-managed work teams - usually members who take on responsibilities usually associated with management Cross-functional teams - members come together from different work areas or departments to accomplish a task Virtual teams – use on-line technology to tie together members in different geographic areas. They are made up of physically dispersed employees who use computer technology to achieve a common goal.
Beware: Teams Aren’t Always the Answer!!
Ask these questions to see if a team fits the situation: Can the work be done better using more than 1 person? Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives? Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals? Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks? Ex) Team vs. Group: Sacramento State women’s basketball team vs. the women’s track team…
Creating Effective Teams
Turning Individuals Into Team Players
The Challenges Overcoming individual resistance to team membership. Countering the influence of individualistic cultures. Introducing teams in an organization that has historically valued individual achievement. Shaping Team Players Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles. Training employees to become team players. Reworking the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to recognize individual contributions. So… would you rather work on your own or in a team? Why? Why not?
So….why are teams “great”?
Increased employee motivation. Higher levels of productivity. Increased employee satisfaction. Common commitment to goals. Improved communication. Expanded job skills. Organizational flexibility.
Summary: So…why are teams “not so great”?
“Myth”: Mature teams are task oriented and have successfully minimized the negative influences of other group forces. (What about apathy? Infighting?) Individual, group, and organizational goals can all be integrated into common team goals. (What about competition? Stress? Frustration? Individualistic personality traits?) Participative or shared leadership is always effective. (Some people need leadership!) The team environment drives out the subversive forces of politics, power, and conflict that divert groups from efficiently doing their work. (What about special deals? Favoritism? Enemies? Teams can't stop this!)
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