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Individual Decision Making

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Presentation on theme: "Individual Decision Making"— Presentation transcript:

1 Individual Decision Making
Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e Stephen P. Robbins Chapter 6 Individual Decision Making © 2005 Prentice-Hall

2 Decision making - making choices from among two or more alternatives
© 2005 Prentice-Hall

3 The Six-Step Rational Decision-Making Model
Define the problem Identify decision criteria Weight the criteria Generate alternatives Rate each alternative on each criterion Compute the optimal decision © 2005 Prentice-Hall

4 Assumptions of the Model
Problem clarity Known options Clear preferences Constant preferences No time or cost constraints Maximum payoff © 2005 Prentice-Hall

5 Creativity - ability to produce novel and useful ideas
Helps decision maker identify all viable alternatives © 2005 Prentice-Hall

6 The Three Components of Creativity
Creativity Skills Expertise Creativity Task Motivation © 2005 Prentice-Hall

7 Five Organizational Factors Impeding Creativity
Expected evaluation Surveillance External motivators Competition Constrained choice © 2005 Prentice-Hall

8 Bounded Rationality Due to the limited capacity of the mind to be fully rational; decision makers construct simplified models to extract the essential features from complex problems © 2005 Prentice-Hall

9 Typical Use of Bounded Rationality
Limited list of criteria based on most conspicuous choices Final solution represents a satisficing choice, not an optimum one Satisficing - first acceptable choice © 2005 Prentice-Hall

10 Common Biases and Errors
Overconfidence bias Anchoring bias Confirmation bias Availability bias © 2005 Prentice-Hall

11 Common Biases and Errors
Representative bias Escalation of commitment Randomness error Hindsight bias © 2005 Prentice-Hall

12 Intuition Unconscious process created out of distilled experience; resulting in a rapid decision with what appears to be very limited information © 2005 Prentice-Hall

13 When is Intuition Used? When a high level of uncertainty exists
When there is little precedent to draw on When variables are less scientifically predictable When “facts” are limited When facts don’t clearly point the way © 2005 Prentice-Hall

14 When is Intuition Used? When analytical data are of little use
When there are several plausible alternative solutions from which to choose When time is limited and there is pressure to come up with the right decision © 2005 Prentice-Hall

15 Tolerance for Ambiguity
Decision-Style Model Conceptual Behavioral Analytical Directive Way of Thinking Tolerance for Ambiguity High Low Rational Intuitive © 2005 Prentice-Hall

16 Gender Differences Evidence indicates that women analyze decisions more than men Reason is not clear © 2005 Prentice-Hall

17 Stages of Moral Development
Level Stage Description Principled 6. Following self-chosen ethical principles, even if they violate the law 5. Valuing rights of others; upholding non-relative values and rights regardless of the majority’s opinion Conventional 4. Maintaining conventional order by fulfilling obligations to which you have agreed 3. Living up to what is expected by people close to you Pre-conventional 2. Following rules only when it’s in your immediate interest 1. Sticking to rules to avoid physical punishment © 2005 Prentice-Hall

18 Organizational Constraints
Performance Evaluation Reward Systems Formal Regulations System-Imposed Time Constraints Historical Precedents © 2005 Prentice-Hall

19 Cultural Differences Cultural background can significantly influence
Selection of problems Depth of analysis Importance placed on logic and rationality Whether decisions should be made Autocratically by individual manager Collectively in groups © 2005 Prentice-Hall

20 Criteria in Making Ethical Choices
Utilitarianism Rights Justice © 2005 Prentice-Hall

21 Implications for Managers
Five suggestions to improve decision making: Analyze the situation and adjust to the national culture and criteria of organization Be aware of biases Combine rational analysis with intuition Do not assume your specific decision style is appropriate for every job Use creativity-stimulation techniques © 2005 Prentice-Hall

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