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Presentation on theme: "ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR"— Presentation transcript:

W W W . P R E N H A L L . C O M / R O B B I N S

2 What is Perception and Why is it Important?
Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. It’s important because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The Perceiver – attitudes, motives, interests, experiences, expectations The Target – novelty, motions, sounds, size, background, proximity, similarity The Situation – time, work setting, social situation

3 Fundamental Attribution Error
Attribution Theory Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others. Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.

4 Shortcuts in Judging Others
Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interest, background, experience, and attitudes. Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic. Contrast Effects Comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. Projection Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.

5 Specific Applications in Organizations
Employment Interview Perceptual biases affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants. Performance Expectations Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived expectations about employee capabilities. Performance Evaluations Appraisals are subjective perceptions of performance. Employee Effort Assessment of individual effort is a subjective judgment subject to perceptual distortion and bias.

6 Assumptions of the Rational Decision-Making Model
Problem clarity Known options Clear preferences Constant preferences No time or cost constraints Maximum payoff

7 So, how are decisions actually made in organizations?
Bounded Rationality Individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity. Intuitive Decision Making Intuition = an unconscious process created out of distilled experience.

8 How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations (cont’d)
How and why are some problems identified? Visibility over importance of problem Attention-catching, high profile problems Desire to “solve problems” Self-interest (if problem concerns decision maker!) Alternative Development Satisficing: seeking the first alternative that solves problem. Engaging in incremental rather than unique problem solving through successive limited comparison of alternatives to the current alternative in effect.

9 Organizational Constraints on Decision Makers
Performance Evaluation Evaluation criteria influence the choice of actions. Reward Systems Decision makers make action choices that are favored by the organization. Formal Regulations Organizational rules and policies limit the alternative choices of decision makers. System-imposed Time Constraints Organizations require decisions by specific deadlines. Historical Precedents Past decisions influence current decisions.

10 Making Choices Many decision makers rely on heuristics or judgmental shortcuts in decision making. Availability Heuristic -- base judgments on information readily available to you. Representative Heuristic -- Assess the likelihood of an occurrence by drawing analogies and seeing identical situations in which they don’t exist. Escalation of Commitment --an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information

11 Summary and Implications for Managers
Perception - Individuals behave based on what they see or believe reality to be. - Evidence suggests that what individuals perceive from their work situation will influence their productivity more than will the situation itself. - Absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction are also reactions to the individual’s perceptions.

12 Summary (continued) Individual Decision Making
- Individuals think and reason before they act. - Under some decision situations, people follow the rational decision- making model. However, this doesn’t happen very often… So, what can managers do to improve their decision making? - Analyze the situation. - Be aware of biases. - Combine rational analysis with intuition. - Don’t assume that your specific decision style is appropriate for every job. - Use creativity-stimulation techniques when possible.


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